Chapter 15 A P

Question Answer
Arteries Carry blood away from the heart
Veins Carry blood to the heart
Capillaries Carry blood from arterioles Exchange blood from Artierioles to venules Foods Gases
How blood flow Arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins
Veins Blood pressure is lowest vessels
Tunica intima Inner most layer of artery Smooth
Tunica media Smooth muscle middle part of the artery Thickest layer of the artery not thick in veins Made up of scale like tissue
Tunica externa Outer layer Thinner in artery thicker in veins And made up of connective tissue Function is to reinforce the walls of the artery
Capillaries Are microscopic Not Lot of blood pass thruVery fine tissue
Venous valve Valve in a vein that keeps blood from flowing backwards
Precapillary sphincters Guard that the blood passes thru To make sure not to much blood gets into capillary bed before getting in to the venule
Arteriosclerosis Harden of the arteries Happens people who have diabetes, hypertension, age,
Atherosclerosis Type of arteriosclerosis
Balloon Angioplasty Catheter inserted into vessel and inflates a balloon to unblock artery from plaque
Metal coil on end of catheter that stays in vessel to unblock artery A stint
Aneurysm Section of the artery that has become widened and weakened
Embolism Blood clot that's travels
Cerebrovascular accident CVA Stroke
Varicose veins Valves in the weaken and no longer shots the vein to the heart and the blood back flows
Hemorrhoids Piles Varicose veins in the rectum
Phlebitis Inflammation of the veins
Thrombophlebitis Acute inflammation caused by clot
Thrombus Blood clot that is stationary in one area or doesn't travel
Hepatic portal circulation The route the blood flow to and thru the liver to process sugar Also used to filter alcohol
Hepatic portal vein Vein that transports blood to liver to distribute sugar to the liver for storage
Placenta Nutrients and oxygen exchange
Umbilical cord Made up of two arteries and one vein The umbilical vein is carrying oxygenated blood to fetus2 umbilical arteries are carrying deoxygenated blood away to the mother
The mother is responsible for giving oxygen to baby
Foramen ovale First shunt. Its the hole in between the wall of the two atriumSkipping the blood from going to the lugs of the baby and going to the ventricle
Ductus arteriosus Is a shunt that's between the pulmonary and aortic artery of the fetus
Ductus venous Shunt is the continuous of the umbilical vein allows blood to bypass the immature liver and empty directly into the inferior vena cava
Blood pressure Push of blood
Blood pressure gradient Difference between two blood pressure Aortic pressure at top Vena cava pressure at the bottom
Hypertension HTN High blood pressure
Heart rate HR x stroke volume SV Is cardiac output CO
5 things keep blood moving thru body Adequate blood pressure Keep heart beating venous valves keep open to keep blood going to heart Contracting skeleton muscles to push blood up Change pressure in chest cavity during breathing
Nine major pulses Temporal FacialCarotid BrachialRadialFemoralPoplitealPosteriorDorsalis
Hypertension. (HTN) High blood pressure
Circulatory shock Failure of circulatory shock
Cardiogenic shock Bad circulatory of the heart Heart failure
Hypovolemic shock Loss of blood volume in blood vessels Trauma
Neurogenic shock Dilation of blood vessels
Anaphylactic shock Acute allergic reaction
Septic shock Infectious agents release toxins into the blood
Temporal artery At temple of head
Facial artery Face or cheek area
Carotid artery Side of neck
Brachial artery Inner arm
Radial artery Wrist
Femoral artery Inner leg groin area
Popliteal artery Knee
Posterior tibial Ankle inner bump
Dorsalis Front of foot

vocab new

Term Definition
Adverse Unfavorable, negative, pronunciation, or parts
Assailant A person who attacks violently
Confront To meet face to face
Contemporary Belonging to the same period
Contemporary A person of the same time
Depict to portray
Groundless Without any good reason or cause
Hypocrite A person who pretends to be what person is
Mimic A person who imitates
Serene Peaceful or calm
Sheepish Embarrassed
Arid Extremely dry
Billow A large wave
Billow To rise
Constrain To force
Disinterested Fair minded
Encompass To encircle
Incomprehensible Impossible to understand
Manipulate To handle or use skillfully
Maximum The greatest
Maximum Reaching the greatest
Ruffle To wrinkle
Ruffle Material that is used for trimming
Stamina The strength to keep going

Chapter 13 Blood A/P

Question Answer
Plasma Liquid part blood were antigens are
Formed elements Different types of cells and cell fragments in the blood
How much blood do we have 4-6 liters average 5 liters Which is 7% to 9% of the total body weight
Rogam Medication given to parents if there blood type is different from child
Biconcave Disk shape Shape of red blood cells
Plasma made up of 50% of the blood 91% water 7% proteins 2% other solutes
Function of blood Transportation Protection Distribute heat Maintain body fluid Maintain normal PH
Buffy coat white grey layer Between plasma and erythrocytes
Serum Everything except clotting factors of blood
Leukocytes White blood cells 5 different types of them
5 types white blood cells Neutrophilis Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Basophils
Neutrophils 60-70% of white blood cells most abundant Immune defense
Red blood cells RBC Red color electrons Can not reproduce Type A Type B Type AB Type O
Lymphocytes 20-25% of white blood cells Makes antibodies aid in distruction of foreign cells
Monocytes 3-8% Turn into macrophages
Eosinophils 2-4%Act in allergic reactions in white blood cells
Basophils .5 -1%Act in allergic reaction React in blood clotting release
Platelets Responsible for clotting
Organs that remove dead blood cells Liver and spleen
Erythrocytes Also called red cells
Stem cell Immature red blood cell
Erythropoietin Hormone Produces from kidney to make red blood cells
Make health blood cells B12B9Iron
What gives red blood cells color Red
Hematocrit (HCT) Provides information about RBC volume
Polycythemia To many red blood cells Signs : sticky blood ClotSlow blood flow
Anemia Low Iron deficiency
Hemmragic anemia Acute blood loss is immediate Chronic over a period of time
Aplastic anemia Characteristed by low RBC that the bone marrow is not producing
Deficiency anemia Lack of iron or lack of something in blood
Pernicious anemia Lack of vitamin b12Nervous system involvement
Folate anemia Lack of folicMalnourished or alcoholic patients
Iron anemia Iron deficiency
Hemolytic anemia Red blood cells are getting destroyed with the body
Sickle cell anemia Genetic disease forms abnormal hemoglobin
Thalassemia Red blood cells are small
Normal white blood count 5000 10000
Leukopenia Low white blood cells
Leukocytosis High white blood countSeen in leukemia patients very high
Leukocytes White blood cells
White blood disorder Mononucleosis aka mono kissing disease
Platelets Third main formed elements
Prothrombin activator Activates prothrombin Prothrombin and Calcium
Thrombin Activated by prothrombin and calcium
Thrombin Produces fibrinogen
Fibrinogen Last stage in clotting
To help clot Use gauze Vitamin k
HeprineCumadine Delay clotting
Aspirin Make platelets stop from sticking
TPA Tissue plasminogen activator Dissolve the blood clot
Hemophilia Blood doesn't clot
Antigens Defines your type of blood Present on the blood cell
Antibody Y shaped found around the cell Antigens make antibodies opposite
A glutenated blood Reaction your blood has
Positive blood can receive positive and negative blood AB+
Erythroblastosis fetalis If a mother was untreated if baby had + blood type
Serum No clotting
Aglutenated blood When a patient is given blood that they will reject hats doesn't match there blood type
Universal doner O-
Universal receiver AB +
Hypochromic page 354 Blood cells Pale in color
Hyperchromic 354page When it's too much iron Dark color
Microcytes Abnormal small Red blood cells
Macrocytes Larger blood cells

Vocab Unit 2

Term Definition
cater to satisfy the needs of, to try to make thing easy
entrepreneur A person who starts up and takes the risk in owning a business
Hazard (n.) risk, peril (v.) to expose to danger or harm
homicide The killing of one person by another
indignant Filled with anger over something unjust
Lubricate to apply oil or grease to make something smooth and slippery
mutual shared felt or shown equally by two or more people
plague (n.) an easily spread disease with a large death toll (v.) to annoy or bother
transparent allowing light to pass through , easily recognized or understood
unscathed wholly unarmed, not injured
available ready for use, at hand
customary the usual, expected
dissuade to persuade not to do something
firebrand a piece of burning wood, a troublemaker, an extremely enthusiastic person
hinder to delay, to stop
indifference a lack of interest or concern
indispensable absolutely necessary not to be neglected
pelt to throw a stream of things, to strike successively
poised balanced, calm, controlled
regime a government in power

Funds Test 5

Question Answer
Non electrolytes s Gluclose Proteins Fatty acids
Proteins Amino acids
Chokedtidin Calcium
When some one is Dehydrated? Kidneys are holding on to water
Diffusion Movements of soludes in the blood
Osmosis Movement of water
Kidneys Control the bicarb
How long it takes kidneys to compensate 3 days
COPD Suffer from respiratory acidosis
Bicarbonate is diarrhea Metabolic acidosis
Hyperventilating Respiratory alkalosis
Active transport Move substance high lower concentration ATP
Tachycardia Increased pulse over 100
Electrolytes Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Phosphate
PH norms 7.35 7.45
HCO normal 22 26
Fluid overload patient Adema Crackles Dark urine Daily weight gain High blood pressure
Four main functions of water Digestion Transport of substance Heat regulation Acid bases regulation
Sodium higher Hyper
Measurements equivalents

Caesar’s English 5

Term Definition
circum around
mal bad
post after
ante before
equi equal
circumspect cautious, careful and on the lookout; to look around
malevolence ill will, hatred, bad
postscript a paragraph, phrase, etc., added to a letter that has already been concluded and signed by the writer (better known as p.s.)
equilateral having all sides equal
antecedent proceeding, prior

Chapter 26 Funds

Question Answer
Catabolism Process by molecules are broken down
Mouth Receives food
How many teeth adults have 32 permanent teeth
Stomach acid 1.9
B12 is absorbed were In stomach
Small intestines Duodenum Jejunum Ileum
Large intestine Water is absorbedWaste happens
Liver Right upper quadrant Produce secretes bike for digestion Major for in digestion of fats
Gallbladder Attached to liver
Pancreas Secretes digestion Secretes insulin glucose
Protein Meet the body's need to build and replace
Amino acids Proteins
9 essential amino acids Body can not make So you need it from you foodv
12 nonessential Amino acids You can make within body mostly made by liver
Protein comes from Meat poultry
Dietary references intake for protein DRI 46 to 56 grams of protein a day
Weight pounds * 2.2= kgKg x 0.8 = grams of protein
Marasmus Starved from nutrition
Kwashiorkor Condition in infants and children weaning off breast milk
Protein excess Liver overloaded can't metabolize protein
Vegetarian diet Decrease of all animals fat in diet
Carbohydrates Body's main quick source of energy 60% of the daily calories intake Easily converted to glucose
Simple carbs Provide a quick spike
Complex carbs Keeps a balance
Fiber Carbs that can't be broken down
Fats lipids Is a essential nutrition Nerves and tissue To dissolve and transport Fat protects our organs
Fatty acids are Saturated fats or unsaturated fats
Cholesterol Components of fat that is linked to heart disease
Vitamins Organic compounds essential to proper functions of the body
Water soluble vitamins Absorbed in blood
Vitamin A B12 Absorbed in small intestines
Minerals Inorganic substance found in animals and plants our body doesn't make it We need it for proper muscle and nerve function
Water Is the most essential of all nutrients Makes 50 % – 60% of body weight

pva 7th R3 mother daughter

Term Definition
matinee afternoon performance of a play
antics playful silly acts
meager small amount
sophisticated worldly
tirade long scolding speech
direct characterization the writer tells directly what a character is like
indirect characterization the showing method of revealing a character; the reader observes

7th Unit 3 Review review for unit 3 test

Question Answer
What is artificial selection? natural selection under the direction of humans
Define the term Recessive the allele whose effect is hidden
Since sex cells have only half of the chromosomes than a normal cell, they are said to be _______ because the chromosomes appear in a single form, not pairs. haploid
______________ is caused by chromosomal mutation which gives a person an extra chromosome, making a total of 47 instead of 46. Down Syndrome
Define the term heterozygous the alleles for a trait are different
How many chromosomes does each human receive from each of his parents? 23
What were the findings of the Human Genome Project? The sequence of genes is nearly the same in every person.There are between 20,000 and 25,000 genes in humans.The genes are laid out in a certain order, or sequence.
Genes contain codes for making ______, which determine a person's unique traits. Proteins
What happens during DNA replication? Each side rebuilds itself by taking free-floating chemicals found in the nucleus and using them to fill in the missing pieces.he process is finished when all sugars, bases and phosphates have found their way to join their matchDNA is "unzipped" by an
The use of genetic science in everyday life is __________ science. applied
What is an amino acid? form chains to make proteins; building blocks of proteins
Define the term Heredity the transmission of genetic traits from parents to offspring
Define the term punnett square a grid used in genetics to show the possible outcomes of genetic crosses and to predict the probability that the offspring will express certain traits
Who first used the term natural selection? Charles Darwin
What is a nucleic acid? a biological molecule necessary for life on earth
Sexual reproduction produces ____________, meaning that no two babies created by sexual reproduction are alike. diverse offspring
Define the term genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
The definition of incomplete dominance is ___________. when the alleles combine or blend together to produce a trait that is a combination of the two
Mutations that cannot be passed down from one generation to the next are _________ mutations. somatic
The definition of multiple gene inheritance is ______________. when several alleles may combine to produce a trait
The fertilized egg is called a(n) ________, and it begins dividing rapidly following fertilization. zygote
Genetic material is found in the chromosomes in the ____. nucleolus
What are mutations? changes in an organism's genes and/or chromosomes
Which of the following is true about mutations in somatic cells? only happens in body cells and does not affect the offspring
Who is known as the father of genetics? Gregor Mendel
Define the term.Dominant a trait that will always appear when present with an allele for the recessive trait
A person's _______ is the genetic makeup of an organism. genotype
What are the two base pairs that form the ladder rungs of DNA? cytosine-guanine and adenine-thymine
Which of the following is true about mutations in germ cells? They affect the reproductive cells.They affect the offspring.They can be carried to the next generation.
How did natural selection affect the moth population near London during the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s? The dark-colored moths thrived, while the light ones disappeared.
What is natural selection? he process in which species respond to changes in an environment over several generations
The offspring of asexual reproduction are said to be ____________ offspring, which means that they are all exactly like the parent organism. uniform
Where do genes get to be removed or added to an organism in order to produce or prevent certain traits? genetic engineering
Define the term.homozygous both alleles for a trait are the same (dominant or recessive)
In sexual reproduction the male donates a ___________ cell with half of the chromosomes needed for a baby sperm
In sexual reproduction the female donates an ________ cell with half of the chromosomes needed for a baby egg
Define the term.Genetics the study of inheritance of traits
What is true about gene therapy? Diseases are caused by defective genes in a person's body and this is an effective way of curing diseases.
Who developed the DNA model used today? Francis Crick and James Watson
Which describes a chromosomal mutation? a change in the entire chromosome, a deleted chromosome, an extra chromosome
A mutation that changes the arrangement of nitrogen bases in a gene is a __________ mutation. gene
In a pair of alleles, the trait of the allele that is actually expressed is the ____. phenotype
The process in which DNA is unzipped and forms two identical strands of DNA is called _____. replication
Define the term.Allelle a form or expression of a genetic trait
Which are nitrogen bases that serve as building blocks? adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine
Punnet squares are best used for: to show the possible outcomes of genetic crosses and to predict the probability that the offspring will express certain traits