430 AT Assistive Technology

Question Answer
Access The term refers to the ability of any person or group to be able to have full use of a product or device, or full access to a service or environment.
Accessibility Features the options that allow a user to adjust a technology tool's settings to their personal needs, such as settings adjust for an individual's visual, mobility, hearing, language, and learning needs.
Accessible Design the intentional designing of tools, services, and spaces to be accessible to everyone, with consideration given to the specific needs of those with cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities.
Accessible Educational Materials (AEM) resources used in education that are designed or adapted to be usable by everyone, including those with disabilities, including textbooks and other learning materials alternative formats, such as audio files, large print, Braille, or digital text.
Accommodations allow a student to complete the same assignment, test, or activity as other students, but with a change in timing, formatting, setting, scheduling, or presentation.
Activities of Daily Living basic tasks such as eating, bathing, dressing, getting in and out of a chair or bed, and getting around at home and in the community.
Adaptive Technologies a type of assistive technology that include customized systems to help individuals move, communicate, and control their environments.
Alternative Access/Input Devices keyboards, electronic pointing devices, sip-and-puff systems, wands and sticks, joysticks, and trackballs to allow individuals to control their computers using tools other than a standard keyboard or pointing device, such as a mouse. Examples.
Alternative Keyboards different from standard keyboards in size, shape, layout, or function.
Ambulation Aids devices to help people walk and include canes, crutches, and walkers.
American Sign Language (ASL) a visual language that is communicated with hand and body movements and is used by many people who are deaf or hard of hearing.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits employers from discriminating against people with disabilities and makes such discrimination a civil rights violation.
App (Application) a program created to be used on a computer or mobile device, including learning activities, productivity tools, games, calendars, and organizational tools, many of which can serve as assistive technology.
Architectural Adaptations physical changes made in the home, school, workplace, or other areas to make those places more accessible to people with disabilities.
Assistive Listening Device (ALD) aid individuals with hearing impairments to hear more clearly in public situations.
Assistive Technology (AT) Assessment evaluation to focus on an individual's need for assistive technology to complete a specific educational, life skill, or vocational task.
Assistive Technology (AT) Device anything that helps someone with a disability do something they otherwise could not do.
Assistive Technology (AT) Service assists in the selection, buying, designing, fitting, customizing, maintaining, repairing, replacing, and coordinating of assistive technology devices, including the training everyone on the use and maintenance of the device.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) increases or improves the communication abilities of individuals with receptive or expressive language impairments, including sign language, picture boards, synthesized and digitized speech, mobile apps, and dedicated communication devices.
Avatar a graphic representation of a person or character used in a computer program or video game.
Braille a raised dot printed language used by many people with visual impairments.
Braille Embossers transfers computer-generated text into embossed Braille output.
Captioning a text transcript of the audio portion of multimedia products, such as movies, television programs and online videos.
Cause and Effect the understanding that an action causes a reaction. It is a basic concept that children need to learn early in life.
Cloud-based applications, services or resources that are stored in a network and accessed via the internet.
Consideration of Assistive Technology (AT) a required part of the annual IEP process under the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) is a thoughtful conversation during the IEP meeting about whether a student needs an AT device or service in order to meet their educational goals.
Daily Living Aids (DLA) AT tools that help people with disabilities to be able to do activities such as eating, bathing, cooking or dressing, such as adapted eating utensils or a button hook for dressing, or voice-activated device that can assist with activities in the home.
Digital Text any text that can be retrieved and read by a computer or other electronic devices.
Due Process Hearing resolve differences with a school concerning the special education services, including assistive technology, being provided to their child, a hearing is more formal than mediation and the parties are generally represented by attorneys or advocates.
Durable Medical Equipment (DME) any piece of equipment that is used to serve a medical purpose, lasts for a substantial period of time, and is appropriate for use in the home.
e-book an electronic book that can be accessed and read via a computer or other device, and are assistive technology when they are used by individuals who could not access their content in other formats, such as print.
Early Intervention Services provided under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), to addresses the needs of infants and toddlers with disabilities, from birth to age three.
Electronic Pointing Devices allow an individual to control the cursor and movements on a digital screen and include tools such as a mouse, joystick, and trackball; when used with an on-screen keyboard, electronic pointing devices allow the user to enter text and data.
Emotional and Behavioral Disorder (EBD) disability that interferes with a child's educational performance. Assistive technology that can be used to support students with EBD includes tools to help with behavioral control, understanding and expressing feelings, and managing attention.
Environmental Control Unit (ECU) enables an individual to control electronic devices in their environment through alternative access methods, such as switch or voice access, such as lights, televisions, telephones, music players, door openers, security systems, and kitchen appliances.
Evaluation a process in which a team of professionals determines whether a child is eligible for early intervention services (birth to three) due to a disability, OR a child's eligibility for special education and other services.
Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) federal legislation that replaced the No Child Left Behind Act in 2015. It outlines the federal government's role in public education, including the requirement for standardized testing of students in grades 3 to 8.
Executive Function a set of mental skills that help us to control our thinking and behavior, allowing us to plan, focus attention, remember instructions, manage our time, self-regulate emotions and thoughts, and complete tasks.
Extension (web browser) an application or program that operates within a web browser. The extension offers additional features or capabilities, such as a spelling and grammar checker that operates within a browser.
Eye Gaze Board a simple communication device with letters, numbers, or pictures mounted at strategic areas on the board.
Eye Gaze / Eye Tracking Technology a way of accessing a computer or communication device by focusing the eyes on a picture or area of the screen. And operates as an input alternative to a mouse and keyboard.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) a federal law that protects the privacy of students and their educational records.
Fidgets sensory objects or toys that children or adults can use to keep their hands busy in order to aid their ability to pay attention.
Free and Appropriate Education (FAPE) a requirement by IDEA law, that school systems provide children with disabilities with special education services & accommodations, including AT, at no cost to the parents, & children be taught in the most typical setting possible, the "L RE."
Inclusion/Inclusive the principle that people with disabilities should be able to participate in the same activities as their peers who do not have a disability including public education, public transportation, in community events, etc.
Individualized Education Program (IEP) A planning process teachers, parents, administrators, and students work together to improve educational outcomes for children with disabilities, includes document to inform present levels of functioning, future goals, and services to be provided.
Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP) a written statement about the developmental needs of an infant or toddler (birth to age three) with disabilities, outlining
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) federal law intended to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to a free appropriate public education with special education and related services that meet their individual needs, and requires that assistive technology be considered.
Internet of Things (IoT) term refers to the smart devices that are interconnected via the Internet, and offers great potential for automating many daily living activities which can reduce strain for those with disabilities.
iOS Apple's operating system for mobile devices, such as the iPhone, iPad and iPod.
iPad Apple's touch screen tablet that is used with a wide range of apps.
iPhone Apple's smartphone that operates as a cell phone, camera, mobile web browsing device, and GPS device.
Joystick an alternate input device connected to a computer that controls the cursor on the screen and can be used as an alternative for people who have difficult using a mouse or keyboard.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) a requirement outlined in the IDEA legislation that states that, to the maximum extent possible, children with disabilities be educated with children who do not have disabilities.
Learning Disability (LD) a broad term referring to a range of learning or processing differences, such as dyslexia (reading), dysgraphia (writing), and dyscalculia (math). Assistive technology is an important consideration for supporting students with learning disabilities.
Learning Management System (LMS) software program that a school uses to deliver course material, track assignments, and maintain educational records.
Mediation process to resolve disagreements between parents and school personnel about special education or assistive technology services being provided to a child; provided at no cost to the family or the school district.
Mobile Device computing device that is small enough to carry with you, often with a touchscreen and wireless access to the Internet, such as a smartphone or tablet.
Mobility and Transportation Aids products that help persons move within their environment & have independence in personal transportation, such as stair lifts, walkers, scooters, wheelchairs, adapted bikes, strollers, adapted driving controls, and vehicle conversions.
Modifications In education, adjusting an assignment, test, or activity in a way that changes the standard or alters the original measurement, such as a shorter reading assignment or an alternate assessment.
Mouse a pointing device moved by the hand to navigate to items on a computer screen.
Online Community Support includes websites, listservs, and other online ways for people to communicate with each other about a topic of mutual interest, offerring both information and support to people who may not able to get together in person.
Onscreen Keyboard software-generated interactive images of a standard or modified keyboard viewed on the computer screen; keys can be selected by a mouse, touch screen, or other electronic pointing device.
Optical Character Recognition and Scanners applications work with a scanner or device camera to convert text from a printed page into a digital text file. With OCR, the resulting digital text can be accessed for text-to-speech or edited and saved as a text document.
Personal Assistance Services (PAS) help people with disabilities complete daily tasks needed for successful participation in school, work, and community living, including, but are not limited to, dressing, eating, personal hygiene, shopping, and home/office organization.
Pointing and Typing Aids typically a wand or stick used to make selections on a touch screen, or to strike keys on the keyboard, often worn on the head, held in the mouth, strapped to the chin, strapped to the arm/wrist, or held in the hand.
Portable Word Processor a lightweight, inexpensive device that can offer access to word processing with a keyboard and small screen for viewing text, writing tool free of Internet distractions, text can be downloaded to a computer or to a printer for saving and printing.
Positioning Supports provide physical support for people with disabilities to be positioned in a specific way in order to engage in an activity, such as positioning rolls, wedges, underarm supports, or specially designed chairs.
Promotion of Independence principle advocates for helping people with disabilities to be as independent as possible. Assistive technology can play an important role in this.
Prosthetic and Orthotics include replacement, substitution or augmentation of missing or impaired body parts with artificial limbs or other orthotic aids, such as splints, braces, foot orthosis, and more.
Receiving Environment the new setting to which a child with disabilities is transitioning. Planning for the child's transition to a new environment must include a consideration of new assistive technology needs.
Related Services any additional support services that a child needs in order to benefit from his or her education, such as: transportation, medical evaluation, parent counseling, speech pathology, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, and recreation.
Scan and Read Program software that converts scanned documents into text that can be read aloud and edited, and often includes additional study tools and supports.
Screen Enlargement Programs magnify an electronic screen, increasing visibility for users with a visual impairment, most programs have variable magnification levels and some offer text-to-speech options.
Screen Reader an application that uses synthesized speech to "speak" graphics and text aloud, used by people with a print disability, such as blindness or low vision.
Seating and Positioning Aids modifications to wheelchairs or other seating systems, providing greater body stability, upright posture or reduction of pressure on the skin surface. Includes wheelchair cushions, trunk/head supports, modular seating, and seating lifts.
Section 504 Plan a part of civil rights law is an alternative to an IEP, requiring a school district to provide a FAPE to each qualified student with a disability, outlines accommodations and modifications, including assistive technology.
Sensory Toys objects that provide tactile or visual input that helps individuals with sensory needs to feel calm, function, and self-regulate in areas such as focus, behavior, and emotion. Such as: water beads, squishy balls, and thinking putty.
Smart Device an electronic device that is linked to other devices or the Internet through wireless systems . Such as smartphones, fitness trackers, biofeedback devices,
Smartphone a cell phone with many capabilities of a computer that is generally connected to other devices or networks via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or 4G/3G, typically has a touchscreen, internet access, and the ability to run downloaded apps.
Stylus a pen-shaped tool designed to be used with a touchscreen, such as with a tablet.
Switches and Switch Software an alternative method of providing input to a device or computer; and can be used to control many devices including adapted toys, communication devices, and computers.
Synthesized Speech computerized speech, is a computer programmed voice that attempts to simulate the human voice.
Tablet a computer which is a mobile device with a touchscreen display.
Talking Word Processors writing applications that provide speech feedback as a student writes, having written material read aloud helps to better edit and understand the writing.
Technical Assistance a set of informational, educational, and related services intended to help an individual or organization build capacity and/or achieve goals.
Text Expansion a program feature to automatically expands abbreviated words or phrases based on pre-programmed commands entered by the user, minimizing the number of keystrokes necessary in order to write more efficiently.
Text-to-Speech an application speak aloud digital text, including documents, web pages, PDF files, and emails, developed for individuals with low vision or blindness, text-to-speech also useful for people with learning disabilities, such as dyslexia.
Touch Screens built into an electronic device, such as a mobile device or computer monitor, and allows direct selection and interaction through gestures on the screen.
Trackball Mouse an alternative mouse with a sphere or ball that is rotated by the fingers to move the cursor on the screen.
Trackpad an electronic pointing device with a flat area that senses touch and is used to interact with a computer screen, used as an alternative to a mouse, especially on laptops.
Transition a process of major change from one set of circumstances to another, representing an important time to consider assistive technology that may be needed in their new setting.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs when a bump or blow to the head causes damage to the brain, may result in a disability with cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor impairments.
TTY (TeleTYpe) / TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf) communication device with a keyboard that sends and receives typed messages over a telephone line for people who are deaf.
Universal Design (UD) an approach to the design of products and environments that is aimed at making them accessible to all people, both those with and without disabilities. Such as: buildings with ramps, curb cuts, automatic doors,
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) the design of instructional materials and activities to be accessible to all individuals regardless of disabilities or learning styles, to support individuals with wide differences in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write,
USB (Universal Serial Bus) a common interface that enables different devices to connect and share information with each other.
USB Flash Drive: (thumb drive, jump drive, or USB memory) a small portable memory device that stores files and can be accessed by inserting the device into a port on a computer or other device.
Video Conferencing allows multiple people to participate in a meeting with shared audio and video; remote method of communicating with others can be helpful for people with disabilities.
Video Modeling a visual teaching method in which an individual watches a video of someone modeling a targeted behavior or skill and then imitates the behavior or skill; can be helpful individuals with autism spectrum disorders.
Video Phone a screen that permits users to conduct real-time audio and visual conversations, useful for those who use sign language to communicate.
Vocal Output Communication Aid (VOCA) an electronic device that generates spoken language for individuals who are unable to use natural speech to express their needs and to communicate with others during a conversation; used to supplement or replace speaking for those with speech impairments.
Voice Banking allows a person to record a set list of sounds and phrases with their own voice,; can then be used to create a personal synthetic voice that can be used in speech-generating devices when they are no longer able to speak.
Voice Recognition (aka Speech Recognition) applications that allow the user to speak to computer or mobile device, instead of using a keyboard to compose digital text; can be used to create text documents, to browse the internet, and to navigate menus, and control applications.
Wearables clothing and accessories such as watches that incorporate computer technologies that give a user feedback on their actions or allow them to interact with other technologies. Such as: iWatch, wearable GPS trackers,
Web Accessibility all people, regardless of their physical or developmental abilities, to have access to web-based information and services; accomplished by designing them to work with adaptive technologies, such as screen readers; and making visual accessible.
Word Prediction applications allow the user to select a desired word from an on-screen list located in a prediction window.
X-10 a communication protocol that allows compatible electronic devices to transmit or receive signals using the existing electrical wiring in one's home. Used for standard devices such as light switches or motion sensors.

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