bio ch 5 cell membranes (structure and function)

Question Answer
another name for the cell membrane fluid mosaic layer
permeable? semipermeable? semi
whats a cell membrane made of phospholipid bi layer/ proteins / other molecules
two types of transport across the membrane passive and active
passive transportenergy?movement direction? no energy requiredsubstances move down their concentration gradient
active transportenergy?direction traveled? energy required (ATP)
3 types of passive transport diffusion / osmosis / facilitated diffusionall 3 high concentration to low concentration
diffusion no membrane requiredmovement of substane from high to low concentrationmolecules only respond to "thier own" concentration differences
def: random kinetic energy moves molecules diffusion
diffusion across cell membranesthings that do? small non polar molecules move through easilyie. O2, N2, CO2, etc…H20 although polar moves through
diffusion across cell membrane things that dont? large substances /strongly polar / ionic substancesie. glucose, NA+, Cl-
osmosis specifically diffusion of water across cell membranehigh to lowmoves to environment with higher solutes
what is osmosis driven by? tonicity
tonicity amount of solute in a solution
cytoplasmwhat is it?whats its solvent?the solute? is a solutionwater is its solventdissolved particles
what can lead to loss or gain of water in a cell the concentration of solutes either in the cell or outside of the cell
tonicity-isotonic solute concentration same as cell
tonicity-hypertonic solute concentration greater than cell
tonicity-hypotonic solute concentration lower than cell
what is it called when a cell is put in a hypertonic solution, what happens creanation of the cell
facilitated diffusion passive or active transport? passive!
facilitated diffusion passive transporthow polar or hydrophillic molecules (such as ions) can diffuse into and out of cells
what does facilitated diffusion use special membrane proteins
the 3 membrane protiens used for duffusion channel protiens / gater carriers / aquaporins (facilitated osmosis)
difference between channel and carried proteins channel is passive transportcarrier is active transport
where are aquaporins abundant kidneys
aquaporin is facilitated osmosischannel protein specifically for waterfacilitates rapid movement of water across membraneprotons and other solutes cannot pass through
active transport requires input of energymoves substances AGAINST concentration gradientrequires use of protein pumps in membrane
primary active transport ATP used directly to power a protein pumpmoves solute against its gradienta key mechanism for neuron function
Na / Kor sodium potassium pumpsmoving what whereagainst or with concentration gradient move Na+ out of cellmove K+ into cell against gradient
what powers a sodium potassium pumpwhy ATPneeds energy to move a thing against its concentration gradient
secondary active transport ATP used to move one solute to CREATE a concentration gradientconcentration gradient of one solute used to transporta second solute
1 types of secondary active transport coupled transport orco-transport(same thing)
what kind of transport creates the concentration gradient for secondary transport to take place primary active tramsport
what is coupled during secondary transport one substance plus some of the substance transported by the primary active transport
3 types of active transport proteins uniporter / symporter / antiporter
active transport proteinuniporter moves one substance
active transport proteinsymporter moves two substances in same direction
active transport proteinantiporter moves two substances in opposite direction
bulk transport mechanisms for movement of large items or large amount of items into cell
2 types of bulk transport endocytosisexocytosis
endocytosis a bulk transportmoves things in
exocytosissimple explanation a bulk transportmoves things out
3 types of endocytosis phagocytosis /pinocytosis/receptor-mediated endocytosis
phagocytosis cellular eating
pinocytosis cellular drinking
receptor-mediated endocytosis uptake of specific molecules*cholesterol
exocytosisin depth explanation 3 tihings vesicles fuse cytoplasmic membranesecretion of large substances outside of cellnerve cells are neurotransmitters(leaving nerve cell)
second messengers cell signaling chemical DOES NOT have to enter cell often small molecules and ions carry message within cytoplasmthese molecules that act as tranducers within the cell are called second messangers

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