bio ch 6 energy/enzymes/metabolism

Question Answer
first law of thermodynamics total amount of energy in universe is constantenergy cannot be created or destroyedenergy is converted
second law of thermodynamics universe favors-chaos and disorder are increasingenergy conversion never 100% efficientmust use energy to maintain order
living systems do not violate this law (2)(part of second law of thermodynamics) organisms are open systems/the earth is an open system
energy 3 types kinetic/potential/chemical
energy defined ability to do work
kinetic energy energy of motion
potential energy stored energy
chemical energy potential energy of chemical bonds
exergonic reactions chemical reaction with net release of energy/release more energy than required!/hydrolysis reactions (order–> disorder)-energy released when covalent bonds are broken
endergonic reactions require CONTINUAL input of energy/yields products rich in potential energy/dehydration synthesis-energy is nessasary to build covalent bonds between monomers
metabolism total of all chemical reactions in a cell/
2 types of metabolism anabolismcatabolism
anabolism builds/dehydration/endergonicie* photosynthesis
catabolism breaks down/hydrolysis/exergonic/catabolism provides Energy the energy provided powers anabolism pathways
metabolic pathways series of chemical reactions where product of one reaction is the reactant of the next/mediated by enzymes/an assembly line (rinse and repeat)
metabolic pathways mediated by? enzmes
w examples of important metabolic pathways cellular respiration/glycolysis
in metabolic pathways what acts on the substrate enzymes
in metabolic pathways what does the enzyme act upon substrate
enzymes biological CATYLYSTS that LOWER activation energy of chemical reactions/can be used over and over again/
can chemical reactions in cell occur without enzymes? no
all enzymes names end in? -ase
most enzymes are ? proteins
every enzyme has a ? substrate
substrate molecule an enzyme acts upon
active site location of an enzyme where a reaction takes place
(relating to enzymes) product what is made by an enzyme/ie. whats released/created by enzyme
what happens when you change an enzymes shape? you change its function(enzyme shape is very specific
what is a 3D protein? an enzyme
describe enzyme specificity enzymes are highly specific to their substrate
enzyme function (induced fit model) enzyme changes shape when substrate enters active site/enzyme returns to original shape when product exits
enzymes helper molecules (2) cofactors/coenzymes
cofactor inorganic substances/examples.. metal ions (Mg,Cu,Fe)/minerals
coenzymes organic, non protein molecules/examples… NAD+ FAD used in aerobic respiration (KNOW THIS )/vitamins
what happens when you go without coenzymes and cofactors reaction rates go down
humans enzymes work best at? out body temp/37 degrees celcius
what does changing our bodys pH do to enxymes denatures them
2 types of enzyme regulation competitive inhibition/allosteric inhibition
competitive inhibition inhibitors bind to and block active site/prevents substrate from entering
allosteric inhibition inhibitors bind to allosteric site/causes the enzyme and its active site to change shape/substrate will not fit into active site
the name of a special type of allosteric inhibition feedback inhibition (feedback loop)
feedback inhibition special type of allosteric inhibition/the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor for the first enzyme in the pathway/the more product formed the greater the inhibition/shuts off the process
ATP is a type of? nucleotide (will be on test, must know for final)
ATP energy currency for cells/potential energy is stored i n covalent bonds between phosphate groups(only 2 of the Phospahtes)/
ATP made up of structure similar to nucleotide/-adenine (nitrogenous base)/-ribose (a 5 carbon sugar)/-3 phosphate groups
cells constantly recycle ATP – ADP – ATP – ATP(adenosine TRI Phospahte) (Adenosine DI Phosphate)
when energy is needed for endergonic reactions ATP in broken into? ADP and Phosphate
when cells make ATP the energy from exergonic reactions is used to re-attach phosphate to ADP
ATP broken down through hydrolysis
ADP becomes ATP through dehydration synthesis

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