bio lab final

Question Answer
Mechanical pipettes, or ______, are used for very small volume transfers (i.e., less than 1 mL) where a high degree of precision is required. micropipettes
Mechanical pipettes, or micropipettes, are used for very small volume transfers (i.e., less than ______) where a high degree of precision is required. 1 mL
________ pipettes, or ________, are used for very small volume transfers (i.e., less than 1 mL) where a high degree of precision is required. mechanical; micropipettes
What are the 3 most common size ranges of micropipettes? and what color-coded disposable tips do they use? 100 to 1000 ?L (0.1 mL to 1 mL), which take blue tips, and 10 to 100 ?L (0.01 mL to 0.1 mL) and 1 to 20 ?L (0.001 mL to 0.02 mL), both of which take yellow tips
100 to 1000 ?L (0.1 mL to 1 mL) micropipettes use what color tips? blue
10 to 100 ?L (0.01 mL to 0.1 mL) micropipettes use what color tips? yellow
1 to 20 ?L (0.001 mL to 0.02 mL) micropipettes use what color tips? yellow
what size micropipette did we use this semester? 10 to 100 ?L
_______, or transfer, pipettes are designed to deliver a single precise volume. Volumetric
Volumetric, or _______, pipettes are designed to deliver a single precise volume. transfer
Volumetric, or transfer, pipettes are designed to deliver a _______ _______ volume. single precise
The volume on the volumetric, or transfer, pipette is indicated near the _____ of the pipette top
________ pipettes do not have gradation markings and only have a single mark or engraved ring above the bulb in the pipette indicating the volume the pipette is designed to contain. Volumetric
With ________ pipettes the fluid must be drawn up in the pipette to above the mark or engraved ring and then released slowly until the bottom of the meniscus of the liquid is exactly at the engraved ring or mark volumetric
With volumetric pipettes,fluid must be drawn up in the pipette to above the mark or engraved ring and then released slowly until the bottom of the _______ of the liquid is exactly at the engraved ring or mark meniscus
With ______ pipettes to transfer this volume to a second container, touch the pipette tip to the inside wall of the new container and allow the liquid to drain out. volumetric
What are the two general types of graduated pipettes? Mohr and serological
if the volume you need to transfer is 1.5 mL, the best pipette to accomplish this with the highest accuracy would be a ____ mL pipette 2
_____ pipettes are designed to transfer a volume by moving the meniscus of the liquid between two gradation marks on the pipette. Mohr
The gradation markings on the _____ pipette do not go all the way to the tip of the pipette but stop before the pipette begins to narrow Mohr
Near the top of this type of pipette you will find the total volume indicated and the size of the smallest gradations (i.e., 10 mL in 1/10, the total volume of the pipette is 10 mL and it is graduated in 1/10 mL increments). Volumetric
______ pipettes are graduated to deliver (there is no base mark). Serological
Since ________ pipettes are labeled with the zero mark at the top of the pipette, you will need to subtract the amount you are going to pipette from the total volume of the pipette to determine the exact mark to fill the pipette to. serological
Using a ______ pipette, if you are going to pipette 6.5 mL using a 10 mL pipette you would fill the pipette to the 3.5 mL mark serological
Using a serological pipette, if you are going to pipette 6.5 mL using a 10 mL pipette you would fill the pipette to the ____ mL mark 3.5
What color are the 2 different types of pi-pumps? and which color is for which pipette? blue for pipettes up to 2 mL and green for 5 or 10 mL pipettes.
List the 4 types of pipets 1. Micro/ mechanical 2. Volumetric 3.Mohr 4.Serological
Two things to be remembered always while using any kind of pipette –1- If it’s a _______ liquid, the lower meniscus of the liquid droplet should be above the marked line.2- For ______ liquids, the upper meniscus should be touching the marked line. colourless; colured
Two things to be remembered always while using any kind of pipette –1- If it’s a colurless liquid, the ____ meniscus of the liquid droplet should be above the marked line.2- For colured liquids, the _____ meniscus should be touching the marked line. lower; upper
What is the definition of a pipet? Long graduated tubes used to accurately measure & transfer liquids.
1 mL = _____ microL 1000
0.5 mL = ____ microL 500
______ pipettes- Can dispense small volumes at a time; Possible to dispense fractional increments; Have plunger, volume adjustment and tip ejector (sometimes) Mechanical
_______ pipettes- Transfer pipets; Designed to deliver a single volume Volumetric
______ pipettes- Measuring pipets; Graduated but stop at a baseline before the pipet begins to narrow; The marking near the tip should be the same as the total volume listed at the top of the pipet Mohr's
The tip end of the _____ pipet is not calibrated Mohr's
______ pipettes- Graduated to deliver exact amount; Maximum volumes the pipet can hold are listed on top of the pipet; Appropriate amount of fluid is drawn into the pipet and the entire amount transferred Serological
Serological pipet- _____ ring (frosted at the top) and single ____– should be allowed to simply drain with the tip placed against the side of receiving vessel. single; painted
Serological pipet- ____ rings – are designed to be “blown out” by a single push of air out of the pipet, completely emptying it. double
In ______ pipets the tip end of the pipet is calibrated, hence there are only 9 graduated divisions. The last 1 division is the tip end. Although its not marked its calibrated as 1 division. serological
________: instrument designed to detect the amount of radiant energy absorbed or transmitted by colored molecules. Spectrophotometer
Spectrophotometer: instrument designed to detect the amount of _____ energy absorbed or transmitted by _______ molecules. radiant; colored
Spectrophotometer's output: 1. Percent ________ (0-100%) 2. _______ (Optical Density Units from 0-2) Transmittance; Absorbance
A spectrophotometer consists of two instruments, a ________ for producing light of any selected color (wavelength), and a _______ for measuring the intensity of light. spectrometer; photometer
In a spectrophotometer, the amount of light passing through the tube is measured by the ______ photometer
The ______ solution contains everything except the compound whose concentration you want to test. blank
Some examples of blank: A solution of water + sugar, where you want to test the concentration of sugar – the blank will be ______. water
Some examples of blank: A solution of water + NaCl + HCl, where you want to test the concentration of NaCl – the blank will be ________ water + HCI
Some examples of blank: A solution of water + NaCl + HCl + Blue color, where you want to test the concentration of NACl – the blank will be ______ water + HCl + blue color
Blanking the spectrophotometer procedure: Set wavelength; MODE=_______; Set Transmittance to 0%; Insert Blank and set Transmittance to 100%; Remove blank and insert sample; Switch MODE to Absorbance; Read absorbance transmittance
Blanking the spectrophotometer procedure: Set wavelength; MODE=Transmittance; Set Transmittance to____; Insert Blank and set Transmittance to ______; Remove blank and insert sample; Switch MODE to Absorbance; Read absorbance 0%; 100%
Blanking the spectrophotometer procedure: Set wavelength; MODE=_______; Set Transmittance to 0%; Insert Blank and set Transmittance to 100%; Remove blank and insert sample; Switch MODE to _______; Read absorbance transmittance; absorbance
if you do not blank it, the spec will measure ___ absorbances and give you a sum of both the compound of interest and its solvent, giving you wrong result two
if you do not blank it, the spec will measure two absorbances and give you a sum of both the compound of ______ and its ______, giving you wrong result interest; solvent
Y = mx + c, where Y is the _____, and x is the ______. absorbance; concentration
When calibrating the spectrophotometer the zero and 100% settings are determined using? A. Absorbance; B. Transmittance B. Transmittance
If there is liquid inside of the pipet, the pipet should be held:A. Vertically with the tip up.; B. Horizontally.; C. Diagonally.; D. Vertically with the tip down.; E. Perpendicularly. D. Vertically with the tip down.
Which type of pipet should always be used with disposable tips? Micropipette
You are asked to pipet 2.6mL into a reaction mixture. There are four pipets on the lab bench (A, B, C, D). Which one do you use?A. P100 micropipetB. 1.0mL pipetC. 5.0mL pipetD. 10.0mL pipet C. 5.0mL pipet
Arrange in correct order (1 first)- A.Switch MODE to AbsorbanceB.Insert blank and set Transmittance to 100%C.Remove blank and insert sampleD.Set the wavelength to 510 nmE.Set Transmittance to 0% (sample holder is empty)F.MODE = Transmittance A:6, B:4, C:5, D:1, E:3, F:2
As the concentration of a colored solution _______, the __________ value ___________.A. Increases; absorbance; increasesB. Increases; transmittance; increasesC. Increases; absorbance; decreasesD. Decreases; transmittance; decreases A. Increases; absorbance; increases
A ________ increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or changed during the process. catalyst
A catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or changed during the process. This change in the reaction rate is accomplished by reducing the ___________ between reactants and products activation energy (Ea)
A catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or changed during the process. This change in the reaction rate is accomplished by reducing the activation energy (Ea) between _______ and ________ reactants and products
The activation energy can be thought of as the energy required to produce an activated _______ needed for a reaction to occur. complex
________ ______ may involve bringing two or more reactant molecules together in a proper alignment, or altering the shape of a particular reactant, or both. activated complex
In effect a _______ allows an activated complex, or transition state, to form with less energy catalyst
In effect a catalyst allows an activated complex, or transition state, to form with ______ energy less
The chemical reactions that are part of life are made possible by organic catalysts known as _______. enzymes
Unlike other types of catalysts, enzymes are _______ specific highly
Typically, a single enzyme molecule will catalyze only ____ type of chemical reaction. one
Most enzymes are _____ and therefore have complex three-dimensional shapes or conformations proteins
Most enzymes are proteins and therefore have complex _____-dimensional shapes or conformations three
The _______ of the enzyme is related to how the enzyme functions. conformation
A general model of enzyme catalysis begins with the _______ and ______ (reactant) molecules separate. The enzyme binds the substrate, and they form the enzyme–substrate complex enzyme and substrate
A general model of enzyme catalysis begins with the enzyme and substrate (reactant) molecules ______. The enzyme binds the substrate, and they form the enzyme–substrate complex separate
The substrate is attracted to the active site on the enzyme and interacts chemically with the _______ in the active site. This interaction causes the conformation of the enzyme to change which results in the formation of the activated complex amino acids
The ______ is converted into the product substrate
The ______ interacts differently with the active site, causing a different enzyme conformation. This results in the product leaving the active site. product
the specificity of an enzyme is due to the ______ of the enzyme relative to the substrate molecule(s). Different enzymes have different conformations, especially at the active sites, which results in very specific catalysis conformation
______ is a naturally occurring compound found in many types of plants; it is especially common in many fruits and plant storage organs. Catechol
The reaction we will follow in this series of enzyme laboratories is the conversion of catechol to _______ benzoquinone
Since this reaction is an oxidation reaction, the enzyme is an ______ and because catechol is the substance being oxidized, a more exact name for the enzyme is catechol oxidase (also commonly called catecholase). oxidase
Every chemical reaction taken place in any organism is _____ and in most cases regulated by enzymes catalyzed
______->Generalization or model->Prediction or hypothesis->Test Observation
Observation->_________->Prediction or hypothesis->Test Generalization or model
Observation->Generalization or model->_________->Test Prediction or hypothesis
Observation->Generalization or model->Prediction or hypothesis->______ Test
True or False? An enzyme increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy of that reaction. True
True or False? While catalyzing a chemical reaction, the enzyme as well as the substrate is consumed. False
Catechol oxidase (catecholase):A. Changes the free energy difference (? G) between reactants and productsB. makes catechol and waterC. has benzoquinone as its substrateD. increases the rate of oxidation of catechol D. increases the rate of oxidation of catechol
According to the induced-fit model of substrate binding to an enzyme: The ______ undergoes a change in its three dimensional structure during substrate binding enzyme
______ data has a limited number of possibilities and there are no data values between those discrete possibilities. A traffic signal can be red, yellow, or green—but no other possibilities exist. Discrete
______ are used to show the exact value of all the observations. This is often referred to as the raw data. Data tables
______ are used to show trends or patterns in the data, Often, we (scientists) are more interested in the trend in the data than the exact values of the data. Graphs
x-axis (horizontal axis) = _______ variable (what you manipulated goes on this axis) independent
y-axis (vertical axis) = _______ variable (what you measured goes on this axis) dependent
_______ = dependent variable (what you measured goes on this axis) y-axis
_______ = independent variable (what you manipulated goes on this axis) x-axis
The dependent variable is plotted on the ____ axis of a graph. Select one:A. XB. Y B. Y
True or False? Generally the exact values of the data points are more important than the overall trend of the data. False
You have measured the number of an invasive fish species caught in a sampling net every month for the past 3 years. You want the number caught in January of last year.A. GraphB. Table B. Table
When graphing continuous data, which type of chart should be used?A. bar graphB. pie chartC. scatter plotD. histogram C. scatter plot
You have measured the number of an invasive fish species caught in a sampling net every month for the past 3 years. You want to know if that fish population is growing exponentially (rapidly doubling) or if the number has plateaued.A. GraphB. Table A. Graph
You have data from an experiment that shows the amount of fermentation that occurs in a reaction at 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 minutes. You need to estimate how much fermentation occurred at the 2 hour point of the experiment.A. GraphB. Table A. Graph
True or False? Enzymes catalyze reactions by adding energy False
True or False? In enzyme catalyzed reaction, both shape of the enzyme and the shape of the substrate are important True
The _____________ hypothesis is rejected when treatments are meaningfully different from one another. Select one:A. AlternativeB. ExperimentalC. NullD. Universal C. Null
______ science is where new things or ideas are revealed Discovery
_______ science is where predictions are made and then experiments are designed to test those predictions. Experimental
Describe the scientific method Observation->Generalization or model->Prediction or hypothesis->Test->
If you measure the length of an object once, it is safe to assume that this value is…A. AccurateB. PreciseC. Both accurate and preciseD. Neither accurate nor precise D. Neither accurate nor precise
If you measured the length of an object 3 times using the same ruler and got the same value each time, then it is safe to assume that this value is…A. AccurateB. PreciseC. Both accurate and preciseD. Neither accurate nor precise B. Precise
If you measured the length of an object 5 times using the same ruler which you checked against a standard length and each measurement of the object gave the same value, then it is safe to assume that this value is… Both accurate and precise
True or False? A measurement cannot be precise unless it is also accurate. False
_____ is the closeness of repeated measurements to one another. Precision
______ measurements are not necessarily accurate, but in general a series of very precise measurements will also be very accurate because it is less likely for random events to occur in exactly the same way multiple times. Precise
The _____ is the average of a series of data points. mean
_______ describes how far away from the mean the data points spread. Standard deviation
This is similar to standard deviation, except ______ allows some inference about how well your sample of data represents the total population of data values and the true population mean. Standard error
_________ = Std dev / Square root of the sample size Standard error
This formula takes into account that level of confidence; thus, the ________ is more likely to be representative of the true mean of the population instead of just the mean of that particular set of data points. standard error
It is important to notice that the ______ is a better representative of the actual range of variation in all the possible data points, whereas ______ is an estimate of that variation. standard deviation; standard error
The _____________ hypothesis is rejected when treatments are significantly different from one another. Select one:A. NullB. ExperimentalC. AlternativeD. Universal A. Null
Standard deviation is: Select one:A. A measure of how well the data represents the populationB. Can be calculated by dividing the mean by the sample sizeC. A description of how much variation there is in a data set C. A description of how much variation there is in a data set
_______ allow cells and organisms to control their internal chemical environment. Membranes
__________ are typically comprised of phospholipid bilayers Biological membranes
Biological membranes are typically comprised of _________ phospholipid bilayers
The phospholipid bilayers of biological membranes have _______ molecules (both integral and peripheral) associated with their structure protein
Many kinds of molecules surround or are contained within cells, but ____ is perhaps the single most important molecule in any living system. water
_____ is a situation where more water molecules are moving across the membrane in one direction than the other. This net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane is caused by differences in the concentration of water across the membrane. Osmosis
The change in the free energy of the water molecules is based on the following equation: ?G = ?H ? T ? ?S
?G = ?H ? T ? ?Swhere:?G = the change in _____?H = the change in enthalpy (heat energy)T = temperature in degrees Kelvin (K)?S = the change in entropy (disorder) free energy
?G = ?H ? T ? ?Swhere:?G = the change in free energy?H = the change in ______T = temperature in degrees Kelvin (K)?S = the change in entropy (disorder) enthalpy (heat energy)
?G = ?H ? T ? ?Swhere:?G = the change in free energy?H = the change in enthalpy (heat energy)T = temperature in degrees Kelvin (K)?S = the change in _______ entropy (disorder)
In most osmotic situations the enthalpy of the water molecules does not change and the temperature is relatively constant across the membrane so this equation effectively reduces to: ?G = ? T ? ?S
During osmosis the net movement of water molecules will be from areas of _____ free energy to areas of _____ free energy, downhill energetically high; low
_______ results in a net movement of water from a solution that has a lower osmotic concentration to a solution that has a higher osmotic concentration. Osmosis
When comparing solutions of different concentrations, the one that has more solute is known as _______, and the one with less solute is known as _______. hypertonic; hypotonic
Solutions that have equal amounts of solute are known as ______ isotonic
True or False? Water can freely pass through the cell membrane. True
True or False? If the concentration of solutes on either side of a membrane are the same, the solutions are isotonic. True
If the water concentration inside the cell is higher than the water concentration outside the cell, then the inside of the cell is ________ compared to the outside. Hypotonic
Cell membranes typically consist of:A. Triglycerides.B. Phospholipids.C. Free fatty acids.D. Carbohydrates. B. Phospholipids.
Large, polar molecules typically can’t pass through the lipid bilayer because of…A. Repulsion by the non-polar lipid tailsB. Repulsion by the polar lipid heads.C. Hydrogen bonding among water molecules.D. Ionization by water molecules. A. Repulsion by the non-polar lipid tails
True or False? The hydrophobic tails of membrane lipids are typically found on the outside of the lipid bilayer. False
The mammalian _________ (red blood cell or RBC) is one of the most well-studied membrane systems and is used as a model to describe many membrane–solvent–solute interactions. erythrocyte
The mammalian red blood cell is a membrane-bound, circular, biconcave disk, which at maturity has no ______ nucleus
RBCs placed in a hypotonic solution (e.g., water) will rapidly swell and rupture (_______) hemolysis
RBCs placed in a _______ solution (e.g., water) will rapidly swell and rupture (hemolysis) hypotonic
RBCs placed in a ______ solution (e.g., concentrated salt water) will rapidly shrink and crenate hypertonic
The amount of time that it takes for hemolysis or crenation to occur is directly related to the rate of ______ across the cell membrane. osmosis
The amount of time that it takes for ____ or _____to occur is directly related to the rate of osmosis across the cell membrane. hemolysis or crenation
As hemolysis occurs, the RBC membrane ruptures and releases _______, causing the solution to clear hemoglobin
______ ______ (increases rate of reaction by 107 times)H2O + CO2   H+ + HCO3- Carbonic anhydrase
_____ _____: if a catalysed rxn takes 1 sec to complete, uncatalysed will take ~ 3000 hrs to complete! Carbonic anhydrase
__________- Minimum external energy required to produce an activated complex.Eg. Boiling water and Igniting matchstick Activation Energy (Ea)
_______ could mean bringing 2 or more substrate molecules in proper orientation, or changing the shape of one or both reactants. Activated complex
striking a match. The energy caused by the friction of a match on the matchbox provides the ________ for the match to ignite activation energy
______ only changes the activation energy; energy of reactant and products are not effected Enzyme
Enzyme only changes the __________; energy of reactant and products are not effected activation energy
Catechol is naturally occurring ______ compound
_____ is common in fruits. Eg. Apple, Potato, mushroom, Egg plant, Turnip, banana, etc Catechol
Oxidation of catechol to benzoquinone is a _______ defense mechanism
Benzoquinone : Anti-____ and anti-______. anti-fungal and anti-bacterial
The brown coating formed on a half cut apple is the _______ that is produced when catechol gets oxidized in the presence of air and catechol oxidase (enzyme in the fruit). benzoquinone
____ – conceptual representation of a phenomenon;____– proposed explanation of a phenomenon Model; Hypothesis
______- Educated guess explaining a given phenomenon; Needs to be testable and falsifiable. ______- Proven hypotheses; Well-substantiated; Unifying explanation for a set of verified hypothesis Hypothesis; Theory
Describe the difference between hypothesis vs theory Hypothesis- Educated guess explaining a given phenomenon; Needs to be testable and falsifiable. Theory- Proven hypotheses; Well-substantiated; Unifying explanation for a set of verified hypothesis
True or False? Selectively permeable membranes allow organisms to control their internal chemical environment. True
When red blood cells rupture, it is known as: (Select One)A. diffusionB. crenationC. osmosisD. hemolysis D. hemolysis
True or False? The solute is a liquid capable of dissolving another substance. False
Hemolysis occurs in red blood cells because…B. A large amount of water enters the cell.C. A large amount of solute leaves the cell.D. A large amount of solute enters the cell, causing a large amount of water to also enter the cell. D. A large amount of solute enters the cell, causing a large amount of water to also enter the cell.
As the substrate concentration increases, so does the _______ production and therefore the rate of the reaction. However, a plateau is seen in the benzoquinone produced after a while due to the solution being saturated by the product. benzoquinone
As the substrate concentration increases, so does the benzoquinone production and therefore the rate of the reaction. However, a _____ is seen in the benzoquinone produced after a while due to the solution being saturated by the product. plateau
If you soak potato slices in 0.1 M sucrose solution (sucrose and water) for one hour, and you find that they weigh more after being soaked (i.e., they gain mass), what can you conclude about the potato cells? they are hypertonic compared to the solution
Certain molecules have difficulty crossing from one side to the other of cellular membranes. If you were designing a drug that you wanted to easily pass through the cellular membrane, would you try to make the compound more or less hydrophobic? More
Which is able to pass through a cell membrane faster, propanol or propanetriol?A. PropanolB. Propanetriol A. Propanol
In lab we looked at the movement of six different solutes across the cell membrane of red blood cells. What is the name of the process by which these solutes moved across the cell membrane? Diffusion
Hemolysis is the name of the process by which red blood cells burst, or explode. In lab, we induced hemolysis to occur and timed how long it took. What was the first process that occurred after we mixed the RBC solution with the propanol/glycol solutions? Diffusion
What process DIRECTLY caused the red blood cells to burst?A. Active transportB. DiffusionC. Osmosis C. Osmosis
To calculate percent change in mass for the tissue, use the formula: % change in mass = (mass change/initial mass) ? 100
The _______________________ variable should be plotted on the X axis of a graph.A. IndependentB. Dependent A. Independent
The variable in an experiment that is manipulated.A. IndependentB. Dependent A. Independent
___________ is the hypothesis that is rejected when treatments are significantly different from one another.A. Null HypothesisB. Alternative Hypothesis A. Null Hypothesis
Looking at your data from Movement of Substances Across the Cell Membrane Lab I answer the following questions:if the potato cells decreased in mass what was lost from the cells:A. waterB. sucroseC. cytoplasm A. water
Red blood cells (RBCs) placed in a hypotonic solution (water) will…A. hemolyzeB. crenate A. hemolyze
If it takes RBCs a long time to hemolyze, that means that the cell membrane is ___________ permeable to the solute?A. notB. slightlyC. very B. slightly
Why does it take glycerol longer to cause hemolysis than propanol?A. Glycerol is larger than propanol.B. Glycerol is more polar than propanol.C. Glycerol dissolves better in water than propanol.D. Both b and cE. Both a and b. E. Both a and b.
Why is it important to dry the potatoes before weighing them?A. The excess water can introduce error in the measurements.B. The excess water can cause additional osmosis to occur.C. The excess water may damage the scale. A. The excess water can introduce error in the measurements.
Organisms are involved in two major aspects of the cycling of carbon in the environment: ______ and ______ photosynthesis and respiration
During _______, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is fixed to produce organic biomolecules photosynthesis
During photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is fixed to produce organic _______ biomolecules
In the process of ______ organisms utilize carbon-based molecules to produce cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and CO2 respiration
The process of _________ consists of two stages, known as the light reactions (or energy-capturing reactions) and the Calvin cycle photosynthesis
The process of photosynthesis consists of two stages, known as the ________ (or energy-capturing reactions) and the _______ light reactions; Calvin cycle
what are the inputs of photosynthesis? Sunlight, H2O, and CO2
what are the outputs of photosynthesis? O2 and sugars
What is the unique feature of photosynthesis? In the light reactions, the ability of a plant to take light energy in the form of photons and convert that light energy ultimately into chemical energy in the form of ADP and NADPH and NADP+
_________- A process used to separate mixtures of compounds Chromatography
Chromatography consists of ____ phases two
In _______ the compounds separated based on the difference in the phases chromatography
True or False? Photosynthesis converts chemical energy to light energy. False
Which of the reactions of photosynthesis require pigments absorbing solar energy? Only the light reactions require this
The products of Photosynthesis are…A. Only sugars.B. Carbon dioxide, sugars, and water.C. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.D. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sugars.E. Sugars, water, and oxygen. E. Sugars, water, and oxygen.
True or False? The Calvin cycle occurs in the cytoplasm. False
True or False? The Calvin cycle does not directly require photosynthetic pigments True
What are the general functions of chloroplasts?A. To produce sugars.B. Cellular respiration.C. To link the Calvin cycle with the light reactions.D. To absorb light energy.E. To store water and nutrients. A, C, D
Chloroplasts of most plants contain several photosynthetic pigments. These pigments are embedded in the ______ membranes of the chloroplasts. thylakoid
Both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are large molecules with a central core of ______ held in a porphyrin ring. magnesium
In both types of chlorophyll the porphyrin ring is attached to a long, hydrocarbon tail that anchors the molecules to the _______ membranes. thylakoid
Chlorophyll a and b have _______ chemical structures, except chlorophyll b has a –CHO group in place of the –CH3 group identical
The carotene and xanthophyll molecules are mainly ______ chains, with alternating single and double bonds between carbons and ring structures at either end of the chain. hydrocarbon
The xanthophylls and carotenes have a very _______ molecular nature that makes their integration into the thylakoid membranes possible. nonpolar
All chromatographic systems consist of a _____ phase and a ______ phase. mobile; stationary
The chromatography paper is a _____ substance. polar
The chromatography solvent (petroleum ether and acetone) is ______ nonpolar
______ substances dissolve in (or are attracted to) polar molecules. Polar
______ substances dissolve in nonpolar solvents. Nonpolar
The most ______ pigment will travel with the solvent front. Nonpolar
The most _____ pigment will stay in place (move last), bound to the paper. polar
Paper chromatography is useful for:A.determining the amount of gas evolved during photosynthesisB.separating pigments based on their physical characteristicsC.determining the distribution of chlorophyll in a leafD.measuring the amount of photosynthesis B. separating pigments based on their physical characteristics
The mobile phase is…A. The mixture of pigments.B. The solvent that was used to extract the pigments.C. The solvent that moves along the paper.D. The paper that the pigments are on. C. The solvent that moves along the paper.
The pigments are separated based on their…A. Concentration.B. Molecular weight.C. Electric charge.D. Polarity. D. Polarity.
White light is a continuum of _______. wavelengths
White light is a continuum of wavelengths. It is composed of all the wavelengths (colors) in the spectrum of visible light. These wavelengths are measured in _______(nm) and range from approximately 380 to 750 nm. nanometers
______ is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that drives the photosynthetic process. White light
Substances that absorb light are called _____ pigments
______ selectively absorb certain wavelengths of visible light and reflect or transmit others. Pigments
an object’s _____ is composed only of those wavelengths of light reflected or transmitted color
a leaf appears green because it reflects and transmits green wavelengths but _____ all other wavelengths (colors) of light. absorbs
The photosynthetic pigments are located in the _____ membranes of the chloroplasts. Here they absorb light, become chemically excited, and pass their electrons to the electron carriers of Photosystem I and Photosystem II thylakoid
The photosynthetic pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes of the ______. Here they absorb light, become chemically excited, and pass their electrons to the electron carriers of Photosystem I and Photosystem II chloroplasts
When a chlorophyll solution isexposedto white light,the pigment molecules absorb light&become chemically excited.Since there arenow no molecules toaccept the absorbedenergy it's re-emitted as light energy of a longer wavelength(red),a phenomenon knownas__ fluorescence
In order for the energy in light to be used to power the reactions that occur in photosynthesis the energy of the light must be ______. absorbed
The pigments present in chloroplasts of spinach leaves and ______ (a cyanobacterium) absorb light of different wavelengths. Spirulina
Chlorophyll appears green because it __________ light.A. absorbs redB. absorbs greenC. absorbs blue and violetD. reflects greenE. reflects green and blue D. reflects green
True or False? The leaves of most plants absorb green light. False
True or False? Light absorbed by a pigment may be re-emitted as light of a longer wavelength. True
True or False? Light with longer wavelengths has lower energy True
Why do photosynthetic organisms have different types of pigments?A. To transfer light to the dark reactions.B. To directly produce ATP.C. To absorb different wavelengths of light.D. To perform different light reactions. C. To absorb different wavelengths of light.
To make it possible for photosynthetic organisms to perform photosynthesis, _____ must be present as the carbon source.A. Carbon dioxideB. OxygenC. PigmentD. GlucoseE. Water A. Carbon dioxide
In order for photosynthesis to occur in green plants _____ must be present for the absorption of light.A. Carbon dioxideB. OxygenC. PigmentD. GlucoseE. Water C. Pigment
A pigment solution contains compound A w/ 5 polar groups and compound B w/ 1 polar group. You plan to separate these compounds using the technique of paper chromatography w/ a solvent that is 9 parts petroleum ether and one part acetone.You would expect: Pigment B to be closer to the solvent front than Pigment A.
Which of the following is a device useful for viewing the spectrum of light is a: Select one:A. chromatogramB. volumeterC. chloroplastD. spectroscope D. spectroscope
Chlorophyll b, xanthophylls, and carotene are important receptors of light energy because they: absorb wavelengths of light different from those absorbed by chlorophyll a
Based on your results from the laboratory a pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is:A. caroteneB. chlorophyll aC. phaeophytinsD. colored orangeE. xanthophylls B. chlorophyll a
Based on your findings, if you had to use colored lights to grow plants, which color would you choose?A. BlueB. RedC. GreenD. Yellow B. Red
Say you are looking at light, which has been passed through a prism so that you can see all of its colors. You then hold up a filter and notice that you can see every color except green. What conclusions can you make about the filter? It absorbs green light.
Whenever you shine white light on a flask of chlorophyll, you notice that the solution turns green but then upon removing the light, the solution glows red. What does this tell you about the nature of chlorophyll? It reflects green light when illuminated and emits red light when not illuminated.
The energy from absorbed light is initially used to synthesize ____ and _____ ATP and NADPH
The ATP and NADPH from the light reaction are used, at least in part, to chemically reduce carbon from CO2 to produce _____ during the Calvin cycle. sugar
True or False? The net rate of photosynthesis refers to the amount of oxygen produced by photosynthesis minus the carbon dioxide consumed by aerobic respiration. False
True or False? Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide in the Calvin Cycle. True
True or False? The oxygen from the light reaction is required for the process of photosynthesis to continue. False
List the functions of the cell membrane protect, separate, regulate
______ allows cells to control their internal chemical environment and the availability of important materials cell membrane
What factors impact movement of materials across the cell membrane? Polarity and Molecular Weight
______- Spontaneous NET movement of particles from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low concentration in a given volume of fluid (liquid or gas) Diffusion
______ Spontaneous NET movement of water through a cell wall or membrane or any semi-permeable barrier from an area of low solute concentration to an area with high solute concentration Osmosis
______ Solution: contains a high solute concentration relative to another solution. _____ Solution: contains a low solute concentration relative to another solution.____Solution: contains an equal solute concentration relative to another solution Hypertonic; Hypotonic; Isotonic
What determines whether a material can move across the cell membrane? Size, shape, charge (polarity)
Particles that move fast usually have: ____, _____, _____; Exception: Water molecules can move freely across the cell mambrane small size, small shape, no charge (membranes are composed of non-polar phosopholipids)
______ concentration: Concentration of solutes (dissolved substances) in the water (or in this case: in the potato) Osmotic
When the osmotic concentrations of two regions differ, water will flow from the area of _____ solute concentration to the area of _____ solute concentration (OSMOSIS) low; high
In which direction will water flow? From low solute concentration to high solute concentration (into the potato cells)
In a hypotonic solution the cells ___ mass gain
In a hypertonic solution the cells ____ mass lose
______- Rupturing of red blood cells Hemolysis
What would happen if a RBC is placed in a hypertonic solution? Solute enters the cell making it hypertonic to the solution; Water enters cell through osmosis and causes cell to lyse
What happens if we put Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in an isotonic solution? Technically nothing
What if the isotonic solution has a solute that can diffuse through the cell membrane? Then the solute will diffuse across the cell membrane
What happens to the solute concentration of the cell as more and more solute moves into the cell? The inside of the cell becomes hypertonic (high solute concentration) compared to the outside solution
Now that the inside of the cell is hypertonic to the extracellular solution, in what direction will water move? Water will move from the extracellular solution (low solute concentration) to the inside of the cell (high solute concentration).
even though the light reactions quickly come to a halt in the absence of light, the Calvin cycle could proceed for some time in the dark because the intracellular ___and ____ pools are not immediately depleted. ATP and NADPH
Changes in the levels of CO2 for the experiments will be measured using the ____CO2 Analysis laboratory package. Qubit
_____- this instrument measures CO2 levels using an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) Qubit
True or False? As the intensity of light goes up the rate of photosynthesis will always increase in a linear manner. False
“There will be no observed difference in the rate of photosynthesis at different light intensities”. This statement is an example of a:A. alternative hypothesisB. null hypothesis B. null hypothesis
The Qubit System will allow the convenient determination of the net rate of photosynthesis by measuring: the amount of carbon dioxide consumed
The ______ (middle leaf ) of a leaf generally has two layers, a palisade layer and a spongy layer mesophyll
The mesophyll (middle leaf ) of a leaf generally has two layers, a ______ layer and a _____ layer palisade; spongy
The ______ mesophyll layer has many intercellular spaces. These spaces serve as a place for gas exchange between the plant cells and the atmosphere. spongy
Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere can diffuse into the spongy layer via the _____ opening in the lower epidermis. The CO2 can then diffuse into the cells and be utilized in the Calvin cycle. stoma
Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere can diffuse into the spongy layer via the stoma opening in the lower epidermis. The CO2 can then diffuse into the cells and be utilized in the _____ cycle. Calvin
oxygen produced by the _____ reactions accumulates in the intercellular spaces of the spongy mesophyll tissue and eventually diffuses out through the stoma to the atmosphere light
oxygen produced by the light reactions accumulates in the intercellular spaces of the spongy mesophyll tissue and eventually diffuses out through the _____ to the atmosphere stoma
The net rate of ______ (oxygen produced by photosynthesis minus oxygen consumed by aerobic respiration) in the disks is thus indirectly determined by noting the time required for submerged leaf disks to float. photosynthesis
What was the role of the sodium bicarbonate in this experiment?A. stop the process of cellular respirationB. remove the oxygen from the solutionC. cause the leaf disks to sinkD. provide carbon dioxide for photosynthesi C. cause the leaf disks to sinkD. provide carbon dioxide for photosynthesis
True or False? The faster the leaf disks float, the greater the net rate of photosynthesis True
More disks will float in petri dishes exposed to higher light intensities than in lower light intensities. This is an example of:A. an alternative hypothesisB. a null hypothesisC. a prediction C. a prediction
The process of ______ provides a mechanism by which some cells can metabolize organic nutrients and produce ATP in the absence of oxygen. fermentation
The process of fermentation provides a mechanism by which some cells can metabolize organic nutrients and produce _____ in the absence of oxygen. ATP
_______ converts glucose to two pyruvates and generates two ATP molecules and two molecules of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) Glycolysis
Glycolysis converts _____ to two _______ and generates two ATP molecules and two molecules of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) glucose; pyruvates
Glycolysis converts glucose to two pyruvates and generates ____ ATP molecules and ____ molecules of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) two; two
When cells or organisms are under anaerobic conditions (without oxygen) the normal mechanism for regenerating _____ from ______ is stopped. NAD+ from NADH
______ includes a set of reactions that regenerates NAD+ and produces waste products from the pyruvate. Fermentation
Fermentation includes a set of reactions that regenerates NAD+ and produces waste products from the ______. pyruvate
In many bacteria, fungi, protists, and animal cells, this process results in the formation of _____. This anaerobic process is therefore called lactate (or lactic acid) fermentation. lactate
In yeasts and most plant cells, however, the pyruvate is converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide, and the process is called ______ fermentation. alcohol
The delightful aroma of freshly baked bread comes in part from a small amount of _____ that is lost upon baking; the holes in bread are made by the _____ escaping through the dough alcohol; CO2
Yeast cells undergoing alcoholic fermentation produce: Select one:A. ATP and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)B. ATPC. ATP and carbon dioxideD. ethanol (ethyl alcohol)E. ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and carbon dioxideF. carbon dioxide E. ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and carbon dioxide
True or False? Anaerobic respiration produces more energy than aerobic respiration. Select one: False
Under anaerobic conditions only, alcoholic fermentation occurs after which of the following pathways?A. Oxidative phosphorylation.B. Glycolysis.C. Electron transport chain.D. Citric acid cycle. B. Glycolysis.
Why is nitrogen used in the Qubit system as opposed to air?A. Oxygen can damage the equipment.B. The instrument is calibrated using nitrogen.C. There is carbon dioxide in the air, which can lead to false readings. C. There is carbon dioxide in the air, which can lead to false readings.
Aerobically yeast convert glucose to ____ and ____. CO2 and H2O
Anaerobically yeast use alcohol fermentation and produce ____ and _____ from glucose. CO2 and ethanol
____ isn’t the only carbon source that can feed into glycolysis. Other carbohydrates (and even some amino acids) can enter the pathway at various points. Glucose
The same type of yeast that we used in this exercise is used in the leavening of bread. What causes the bread to rise?A. production of ethanolB. production of CO2C. production of waterD. production of sucrose B. production of CO2
The same type of yeast that we used in this exercise is used in the leavening of bread. What happens to the alcohol that is formed?A. it evaporatesB. it is converted to sucroseC. it causes bread to riseD. it is converted to glucose A. it evaporates
Where are the enzymes of fermentation located in the yeast cells?A. NucleusB. ChloroplastC. CytoplasmD. Mitochondria C. Cytoplasm
What would be the most likely effect of adding a more concentrated solution of yeast to our test solutions?A. The rate of the CO2 production would be slowerB. The rate of the CO2 production would be faster. B. The rate of the CO2 production would be faster.
What would be the most likely effect of decreasing the temperature of the fermentation cultures to 20?C?A. There would be no difference in the rate of fermentation.B. The rate of fermentation would be slower. B. The rate of fermentation would be slower.
True or False? Boiling the yeast before adding them to the carbohydrate solutions would increase the rate of fermentation. False
What was the control in the fermentation exercises?A. ethanolB. deionized waterC. lactoseD. glucose B. deionized water
The Lactaid tablet is given to people who cannot digest lactose. This is because these people… Don’t produce the enzymes necessary to break down lactose.
True or False? Considering this lab and the enzyme lab, it is theoretically possible to perform the reactions of fermentation using just purified enzymes instead of whole organisms. True
Organisms are involved in cycling of carbon by: _____ and _____ Photosynthesis and respiration
What is photosynthesis's chemical equation? 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy–> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
What are the two stages that photosynthesis consists of? Light reactions and Calvin Cycle (Dark Reactions)
______- Technique used to separate a homogenous solution into individual consitituents Chromatography
_______- Shows the colors transmitted from a particular substance; Different colors of spectrum and wavelength (in nanometers) can be seen Spectroscope
_______– instantaneous release of a LONGER wavelength of light (LOWER energy) after the initial absorption of a photon Fluorescence
What are the two strategies to measure rate of photosynthesis? 1. Measure the decrease of reactants (inputs) 2. Measure the increase of products (outputs)
Net Photosynthesis = ______ Rate – _____ Rate Photosynthesis; Respiration
______ is connected to IRGA Desiccant
______- Analyzer, uses Infrared light, water can affect the reading IRGA
All the water molecule taken up by ______ desiccator
Why LED light source is Red? RED light hits one of those wavelength which is absorbed by plant leaves.
_____ _____ Fermentation: pyruvate from glycolysis is converted to lactic acid. Example: human muscle cells Lactic Acid
_______ Fermentation: pyruvate from glycolysis is converted to 2 ethanol molecules with CO2 as a by product. Example: certain bacteria , YEASTS Alcohol
If Lactase enzyme is not present in small intestine then lactose can’t be converted into _____ molecule. glucose
_____ doesn't have lactase yeast

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