BIO Unit 5

Question Answer
Polygenic inheritance, in which a trait is influenced by multiple genes. epistasis
Effect in which the full and separate phenotypic effects of two alleles are apparent in heterozygous individuals codominance
Inheritance pattern in which one allele is not fully dominant over another, so the heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate blend between the two homozygous phenotypes. incomplete dominance
All of the genes on a chromosome. linkage group
During meiosis, alleles at one gene locus on homologous chromosomes tend to be distributed into gametes independently of alleles at other loci. law of independent assortment
Cross between two individuals identically heterozygous for two genes; for example, AaBb ? AaBb dihybrid cross
A diploid cell has two copies of every gene that occurs on its homologous chromosomes. Two alleles at any locus are distributed into separate gametes during meiosis. law of segregation
Cross between two individuals identically heterozygous for one gene; for example Aa ? Aa. monohybrid cross
Method of determining the genotype of an individual with a dominant phenotype: a cross between the individual and another individual known to be homozygous recessive. testcross
Diagram used to predict the genotypic and phenotypic outcomes of a cross. Punnett square
Refers to an allele with an effect that is masked by a dominant allele on the homologous chromosome. recessive
Refers to an allele that masks the effect of a recessive allele paired with it in heterozygous individuals. dominant
an individual's observable traits phenotype
the particular set of alleles that is carried by an individual's chromosomes genotype
A heterozygous individual. hybrid
Having two different alleles at the same locus on homologous chromosomes. heterozygous
Having two identical alleles at the same locus on homologous chromosomes. homozygous
A particular location on a chromosome. locus
Failure of chromosomes to separate properly during nuclear division. nondisjunction
Condition of having too many or too few copies of a particular chromosome. aneuploidy
Condition of having three or more of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species. polyploidy
In genetics, structural rearrangement in which a broken piece of chromosome has become reattached in the wrong location. translocation
Definition:Structural rearrangement of a chromosome in which part of the DNA has become oriented in the reverse direction inversion
repeated section of DNA in a chromosome duplications
Segment of DNA that can move spontaneously (“jump”) to a new location in a chromosome or between chromosomes. ransposable elements (transposons)
Chart of family connections that shows the appearance of a phenotype through generations. pedigrees
Refers to a gene that affects multiple traits. pleiotropic
Gene for which three or more alleles persist in a population at relatively high frequency. multiple allele system

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