Blood Blood Composition

Question Answer
Materials transported in blood Gasses, nutrients, waste, hormones, stem cells
How WBCs protect the body Prevent and destroy infection and cancer, deliver antibodies, initiate blood clotting
What blood regulates pH, body temp, fluid distribution
All cells in the blood Formed elements
Plasma Water (91%), proteins, solutes (55% of whole blood)
Proteins in plasma Albumin, fibrinogen, globulin
Albumin Responsible for viscosity and osmolarity
Fibrinogen Form fibrin, which is responsible for blood clotting
Globulin Responsible for antibodies
Solutes in plasma Nutrients, waste, gasses, ions
Buffy coat Thrombocytes and leukocytes (<1% of whole blood)
Thrombocytes/platelets Responsible for clotting blood
Leukocytes/WBCs Fight infection (granulocytes and agranulocytes)
Erythrocytes/RBCs Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide (45% of whole blood)
Hematocrit Measures % of erythrocytes/RBCs in whole blood
Viscosity Thickness/stickiness of blood, resistance of flow, provides stability for cardiovascular health
Osmolarity Moving water between blood and tissues, consistent absorption rate important for cardiovascular health
Hemopoiesis/hematopoiesis Production of all RBCs
Where formed elements are created Red bone marrow of the flat bones
Hemocytoblasts "Builders" of blood. Stem cells in RBM responsible for generating all formed elements in the blood
Stem cell characteristics Unspecialized/undifferentiated, can divide and replicate limitlessly
Growth factors Cause hemocytoblasts to specialize/differentiate in order to become formed elements in the blood
Neutrophils "Bacteria slayers": bacterial infections, burns, inflammation, stress
Lymphocytes T-fight tumors and viral infections,B-fight bacterial infections by producing antibodies,constantly cycled into the blood stream and never die, can't get the same disease twice
Monocytes Fight viral and bacterial/fungal infections, leave blood stream and entering tissues
Eosinophils Attach to parasites, also related to allergies and asthma by releasing histamines
Basophils Fights allergic reactions: histamine-vasodilator, heparin-prevents blood from clotting too quickly
Histamine Vasodilator, helps draw more WBCs to affected area
Heparin Prevents blood from clotting too quickly
Heme Iron is removed, the rest is converted to bilirubin
Transferrin Returns iron (Fe) to bone marrow to be reused to make more heme
Bilirubin Goes to gallbladder and becomes bile, which is excreted into the small intestine; breaks down to stercobilin and urobilin
Antigens Chemicals on the surface of cells, genetically unique, enable body to distinguish itself from foreign matter
Antibodies Proteins that bind to foreign antigens and mark them for destruction
Blood typing Determining which antigens are on the surface of the cell
Agglutination Antibodies bind with foreign antigens, causing the blood to clump/group together and making it easier for phagocytes to destroy
Characteristics of RBCs Transport O2 and CO2, flexible membrane (won't get stuck), no nucleus, no DNA (can't reproduce), live 120 days, no mitochondria so won't consume O2 it's transporting, no organelles to make room for hemoglobin
Hemoglobin Carries four O2 molecules; four polypeptide chains carry one molecule each
Globin Broken down into amino acids by hydrolyzing enzymes and returned to blood to make more protein
Hypoxia Low O2 transport due to blood loss, decreased iron, or high altitude
Negative feedback loop of RBC production Hypoxia; kidney secretes erythropoietin; red bone marrow stimulated by EPO increases hemocytoblasts and erythropoiesis; increased RBC count increases O2 transport
Sickle Cell Disease All RBCs, both parental genes, die young
Sickle Cell Trait Only half of RBCs, only one parental gene, can't contract malaria
Sickle Cell characteristics Genetic disorder, recessive allele modifies hemoglobin, hemoglobin forms inflexible chains that get stuck in capillaries
Hemolysis The rupturing of RBCs
Macrophages In liver and spleen, digest fragments of ruptured cell membrane, removes iron from hemoglobin
Phagocytes Destroy dead, dying and foreign cells
Anaphylactic shock Allergy to antigen that causes a massive release of histamine, a vasodilator and bronchoconstrictor
HDN Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Effects of HDN Severe anemia, lack of O2 which causes decreased physical and mental development, brain damage
RhoGam Stops the mother from becoming sensitized to Anti-Rh and learning to make antibodies on her own
Hemostasis The cessation of bleeding
Three stages of hemostasis Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation/clotting
Vascular spasm Immediate constriction of broken blood vessel
Platelet plug formation Platelets adhere to collagen fibers of vessel wall to temporarily seal the break
Coagulation RBCs and platelets stick to fibrin to form a better seal in the broken vessel

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