Human anatomy exam 3

Question Answer
Hormone released by osteoblasts and stimulates insulin secretion Parathyroid hormone
Excess production of this pituitary hormone can cause cushings disease ACTH
Released by pineal gland in response to darkness on night time (make sleepy) Melatonin
Released by beta cells of the pancreas to lower blood sugar levels Insulin
A hormone released by the adrenal medulla Aldosterone
Pituitary hormone that acts on the kidney to decrease h2o excretion and urine formation Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hormone released by the anterior pituitary to stimulate thyroid hormone release by thyroid gland TSH
Tested produce this hormone Testosterone
Overuse produce this hormone Estrogen
Contains iodine atoms and regulates basal metabolic rate of body Thyroxine
Hormones released by the neurohypophysis ADH and oxytocin
Difference between endocrine gland and exocrine gland Endocrine secretes hormones into blood stream while exocrine secretes substances to epithelial surface
Example of endocrine and exocrine gland Endo- pancreas Exo- sweat gland
One hormone gland located in the abdomen Pancreas
One hormone gland located in the neck Thyroid
One hormone gland in th me brain Pineal
Name of cranial nerve V Trigeminal
Name of cranial nerve X Vagus
4th ventricle is found within what major brain structure Cerebellum
Name of tough outer covering of the brain and spinal cord a??tough Mothera?? Dura matter
This gland secretes melatonin Pineal
Paralysis of all four limbs is called Quadriplegia
Name the egg shaped brain structure found right above the hypothalamus and pituitary gland Thalamus
Name of bridge that allows communication between the two hemispheres Corpus callosum
Hemisphere thought to be dominant in logical and analytical individuals Left
Makes up 80% of the brain Cerebrum
Makes up 20 % of the brain Cerebellum
Valley or groove Sulci
Top of brain convolution Gyri
Type of muscle NMJ at each cell Skeletal
Type of muscle grouped in fascicles Skeletal
Type of muscle can preform peristalsis Smooth
Type of muscle diaphragm muscle Skeletal
Type of muscle functional syncytium Smooth and cardiac
Type of muscle contains intercalated discs Cardiac
Type of muscle requires nerve stimulation Skeletal
Type of muscle exhibits muscle tone Skeletal
Type of muscle perimysium surrounds Skeletal muscle
Type of muscle organized in motor units Skeletal
Type of muscle has gap junctions Smooth muscle
Type of muscle can stretch twice in length Smooth
Type of muscle audtorhythmicity capacity Smooth and cardiac
Type of muscle walls of intestine Smooth
Type of muscle contains actin and myosin Smooth cardiac and skeletal
Type of muscle under involuntary control Cardiac
Type of muscle arrector pili Smooth muscle
Type of muscle striated Skeletal and cardiac
Type of muscle branches cells Cardiac
Type of muscle SA node Cardiac
Type of muscle arterial blood vessel walls Smooth
Type of muscle prolonged denervation causes atrophy Skeletal
Type of muscle has a??pacemakera?? cells Smooth and cardiac
Type of muscle single nucleus per cell Smooth and cardiac
What is the average size motor unit 150
What is the approximate motor unit size in the hamstring of leg 1000
Approximate motor unit size for fingers of hand 10-12
Name of chamber with skeletal muscle that stores Ca+2 ions Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Name of cell membrane of skeletal muscle fiber Sarcolemma
AChE enzyme cleaves ACh into these two pieces Acetate and choline
Name the 2 contractile proteins found in all muscle types Actin and myosin
Name of thick myofilament Myosin
Spell out AChE Acetylcholinesterase
Spell out MG Myasthenia gravis
Name the specific neurotransmitter used in the NMJ Acetylcholine
Name the tendon attachment site of skeletal muscles at more stationary site Origin
Name of a??theorya?? of how actin and myosin cause contraction Sliding filament theory
Creates a??light stripea?? in striated muscles Actin
Name the usual a??pacemakera?? location in the heart (cardiac muscle) SA node, right atrium
Name of deep fascia that surrounds the outside of the entire muscle Epimysium
Posterior back muscle which originates in lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and inserts into humerus bone (swimmers muscle) also called cardiac assist Latissimis dorsi
Thin muscle that physically separates the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities Diaphragm
Expands rib cage to assist inhalation of air External intercostals
Posterior neck muscles that extends and hyperextends neck when contracted Splenius capitus
Anterior leg muscle that causes dorsiflexion of foot Tibialis anterior
Superficial and diagonal abdominal muscle External oblique
Contraction of these posterior synergistic groupings of muscles help to extend back/vertebrae (strained my improper lifting) Erector spinae
Thigh muscle that causes flexion of knee Hamstring
Mid line band if connective tissue along the abdominal surface, good site for surgical incisions Linda alba
Vertical abdominal muscles that flexes the abdomen when contracted Recurs abdominus
2 muscles that allow mastication (chewing) Masseter and temporalis
Contraction of this eye muscle will cause he eyeball to rotate latterally Lateral rectus
Buttock muscle, extensor muscle of thigh, important for standing and walking. Good site for IM injections Gluteus Maximus
Covers shoulder joint, helps stabilize, abducts shoulder joint extends or flexes humerus at shoulder joint. Common site for IM injections Deltoid
Deeper than erector spinae and co era lumbar region, causes lumbar extension or lateral flexion Quadratics lumborum
Large anterior chest muscle Pectoral
Achillesa?? tendon. Tendon attachment for gastrocnemius muscle and calcaneous bone. Tendo calcaneous
Posterior antagonist of biceps. Extends elbow joint Triceps
Laterally rotates neck when either left or right muscle contracts Sternocleidomastoid
Deep abdominal muscle that runs in a diagonal direction Internal oblique
Strap like muscle which runs obliquely across anterior portion of thigh. AIDS in flexinf and literally rotating leg. Longest continuous muscle in body Sartorius
Anterior side. Coracoid process of scapula. Flexes elbow Biceps
Deepest of 4. Horizontal muscle sheet runs perpendicular and under vertical rectus abdominus muscles. Compresses abdomen when contracts Transverse abdominus
Trapezoid shapes. Origin is from occipital bone and all cerviacal and thoracic vertebrae. Elevates scapula, extends neck. (Shoulder massage) Trapezius
Compresses rib cage to assist exhalation of air Internal intercostals
Composed of 4 thick anterior thigh muscles Quadriceps femoris
Posterior of calf muscle with two distinct heads. Causes flexion of knee joint and plantar flexion of foot. Inserts into calcaneous bone. Gastrocnemius
All four named after the direction they move eyeball. If contract both =crosseyed Medial rectus
Causes superior/lateral movement of eyeball Superior oblique
Order of how an electrical nerve impulse causes the contraction of skeletal muscle. 1-3 1. Electrical nerve impulse reaches end of nerve axon. 2. Neurotransmitter is released my exocytosis into the gap between neuron and muscle Cell3. Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic gap
Order of electrical nerve impulse 4-8 4. Neurotransmitter binds to its receptors on motor endplate of muscle Cell. 5. Electrical impulse starts to move across surface of muscle fiber 6. Electrical impulse travels down t tubles
Order of electrical nerve impulse 7-8 7. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is stimulated to release Ca+2 to interior of muscle fiber 8. Overlapping actin and myosin layers are now stimulated to a??slidea?? across one another to cause muscle contraction
Progressive nerve degeneration leading to skeletal muscle wasting, difficulty in swallowing and speaking, also known as Lou Gehriga??s disease ALS amyotrophiclateralsclerosis
Inability to process or interpret sensations such as sound sights or smells Agnosia
Blow to he head causes injury to opposite side of brain due to brain movement in skull Countercoup injury
Condition in which two lumps are paralyzed Paraplegia
Excessive accumulation of CSF in the ventricles causing a enlarged head in the young Hydrocephalus
Condition that causes temporary paralysis of facial muscles due to infection of the facial nerve Bella??s palsy
Damage to this nerve often causes claw hand Ulnar nerve
Neurological disease that results in righty, slow movement of limbs and tremors due to decrease in dopamine neurotransmitter. Parkinsona??s disease
Neurological disorder characterized by involuntary yelping or grunting often accompanied by head jerking, eye blinking or grimacing Tourettea??s syndrome
Name of specific gurus where voluntary motor signals originate to move muscles Precoital gyrus
One example that demonstrates self excitability (pacemaker ability) The heart being removed from the body and still beating
Three layers that bind a skeletal muscle and fibers Endometrium epimysium and perimysium
All three skeletal layers merge to form what Collagen fibers of tendons
What is a muscle Cell called Myocyte
Name the thin myofilament Actin
Specific neurotransmitter used in the NMJ Acetylcholine
T or F. Going down stairs is an example of concentric contraction False
T or F the concentric contraction is explained by the sliding filament mechanism True
Eccentric muscle contractions are when a muscle generates force as it lengthens. T or F True
Damage to this nerve is often called a??foot dropa?? Peripheral
Loss of feeling or sensation Hypesthesia
Name of largest hollow areas filled with CSF Lateral ventricles
Neurons physically located outside of the brain and spinal cord make up the CNS or PNS PNS
specific brain area that allows us to speak and articulate words Brocas area
Name the paired grey mater areas found deep in the cerebrum that prevents tremors Diencephalon
pituitary hormone that promotes milk ejection and uterine contraction during child birth Oxytocin
Released by alpha cells of pancreas Glucagon
released by posterior glands of thyroid to return calcium back tk bone Calcitonin
AKA neurolemmocyte Schuans cell
Phagocyte white blood cells Microglia
Forms white matter in PNS Olligondrolcytes
Increase electrical conduction speed of nerves in CNS Oligondrocytes
Attacked in multiple sclerosis Oligondrocytes
Forms blood brain barrier Astrocytes
neurological cell that myalin sheaths wraps around several diferent axons Oligondrocytes

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