Islam Vocab AP Global

Question Answer
Osman. A leader of the semi-nomadic Turkish group who migrated into Anatolia and set up the Ottoman Empire.
Gunpowder Empires. Era after 1450 which was marked by powerful empires that used guns to subjugate enemies and build control.
Seljuk Turks. Early group of Turkish invaders who challenged the Christians for land during the Crusades.
Istanbul. City formally known as Constantinople, conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, marking the collapse of the Byzantine Empire.
Suleiman the Magnificent. Ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566, during which the empire had reached its height of power and achievement.
Sultan. Ruler in the Islamic empire.
Janissary. Elite military group of Ottoman soldiers.
Deshirme. System instituted by the Ottomans in the Balkans which forced Christians to contribute young boys to become slaves of the sultan, serving in either the government or army.
Vizier. Head of the imperial administration aiding the sultan in day to day operations.
Imams. Descendants of Muhammad's son in law, Ali, based on the Shiite belief, served as the basis for political structure of the Safavid Empire.
Ismail. Founder of the Safavid Empire, which was named after the Sufi mystic Safi Al Din, and is based on Shitte Islam.
Quizialbash. Soldiers of the Safavid Empire, armed with swords and knifes, literally translated to redheads because of the color of their turbans.
Battle at Chaldrian. Ottoman janissaries were victorious over Safavid quizalbash due to the difference in weaponry, served as a marker event to signify the limit of Shiite expansion.
Shah Abbas I. Ruler of the Safavid Empire from 1588 to 1629, during which the empire reached its height of power and achievement.
Slavery infantrymen. Christian boys from Russia who were captured and forced to serve in Shah Abbas' qizilbash.
Babur. Islamic descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan who founded the Mughal Empire in India in 1526.
Akbar the Great. Ruled the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1605, during which the empire reached its height of power and achievement.
Rajas. Hindu regional leaders in India, appointed high positions in the bureaucracy by Akbar in order to in order to alleviate tensions between Hindus and Muslims.
Taj Mahal. Impressive building by Mughal Shah Jahan as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Sati. Ritual suicide of Hindu widows by jumping into the husband's funeral pyres, outlawed by Akbar the Great and Shah Jahan.
Purdah. Seclusion of upper class Hindu women.
Sikhism. Created by Guru Nanuk in order to integrate Hindu and Muslim beliefs.
Ivan III. Also known as Ivan the Great, first Russian prince who refused to pay tribute to the Mongols, declared himself as tsar, claiming that he was establishing the third Rome.
Cossacks. Peasants recruited by Ivan the Great to settle new Russian territories in exchange for their freedom in serfdom.
Ivan IV. Also known as Ivan the Terrible, Ivan III's grandson who fought with the upper class boyars for power and had many of them brutally executed, execute his oldest son and left no heir, led to the selection of Mikhail Romanov as leader by the boyars.
Boyars. Russian nobility.
Romanov family. Boyar family which ruled Russia from the 17th to 20th century.
Peter the Great. Ruled Russia from 1682-1724, sought to westernize and modernize Russia.
Widow to the west. Nickname of Peter's capital at St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea, port city which allowed the Russians to access western European countries.
Table of Ranks. One of Peter the Great's many reforms, system of replacing boyars with the government officials who earned their positions based on merit, not aristocratic status.
Forbidden City. Second Ming capital of Bejjing.
Macao, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Shanghai Urban trade cities that grew under Ming economic development.
Jesuits. Order of Catholic missionaries organized during the Catholic Reformation of Europe.
Matteo Ricci. Ambitious Italian Jesuit priest who hoped to convert the Chinese emperor to Christianity.
Qing Dynasty. Meaning "pure", dynasty set up by the Manchurians after collapse of the Ming.
Queue. A Manchu style patch of hair gathered long and uncut in the back, while Chinese men were forced to adorn to show admission to the dynasty.
Kowtow. Ritual ceremony required to be done by all visitors to the Qing Emperor.
Kangxi, Qianlong. Two best known Manchu rulers who ruled collectively from 1661 to 1795.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Japanese warlord who united Japan under his authority in 1590.
Tokugawa Shogunate. First centralized government established by Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1603.
Bakufu. Meaning tent government, implying that the Tokugawa Shogunate was a temporary replacement for the real power of the emperor, though it last from 1603 to 1867.
Kabuki. Form of Japanese theatrical drama that consisted of several acts made up of skits of singing, dancing, and elaborate staging.
Floating world. Setting of the kabuki plays made up of an urban jumble of teahouses, public baths, and brothels that allowed people to escape the rigid public decorum of society.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *