Memory A level

Question Answer
Coding Changing the format of information to be stored in memory
The amount of information that can be held in a memory store Capacity
Duration The length of time that information can be held in memory
STM The limited capacity memory store. Coding is mainly acoustic, capacity is 7+/-2 items, duration is around 18 to 30 seconds
LTM The permanent memory store. Coding is mainly semantic, it has unlimited capacity and a duration of up to a lifetime
Research for coding Baddeley. Gave different lists of words to four groups- acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar and semantically dissimilar words. Immediate recall- bad on acoustically similarDelayed recall- bad on semantically similar
Research on capacity Jacobs- Digit span test1151571572- mean capacity for digits was 9.3 items and for letters 7.3 items.
Miller Chunking- we can remember 7 letters as well as 7 words
Research into duration of STM Peterson and Peterson.24 undergradsTrigrams, retention interval to stop rehearsal, repeat the trigram.After 3 secs- 80%After 18 secs- 12%Duration is around 18-30 seconds
Disagreement with miller Cowan said capacity of STM was actually around 4 chunks.
Research into duration of LTM Bahrick et al. Year book study. 392 participants aged 17-74 Participants within 15 year of graduation had about 90% recallParticipants who were 48 years after graduating had 30%- shows LTM can last a long time
Multi-store model A representation of how memory works in terms of 3 stores called sensory register, STM and LTM. It also describes how memory is transferred from one store to the other and how it is forgotten.
Sensory register The memory stores for each of our five senses, such as vision (iconic) and hearing (echoic). Capacity is huge (millions of receptors) and duration is less than half a second.
Explain how the MSM works Attkinson and Shiffrin. Stimuli from the environment enters the sensory register. If attention is payed to it, it enters the STM. If this information is rehearsed for a prolonged time, it will enter LTM. Info from LTM is retrieved and outputted from STM
Supporting research for MSM Studies that show differences in STM and LTM prove that they are separate. For example, Baddeley's coding study showed that they code info differently, therefore, they are separate and independent from each other.
Against MSM- more than one type of STM Cases into amnesia show that STM as a unitary store can't be true. KF (studied by shallice and warrington) was able to remember digits in his STM if he read them himself than if he heard them- this implies that there is more than one type of STM
Against MSM- more than one type of rehearsal Craik and watkins said that it is not the amount of rehearsal thats solely important, but also the meaning of the information (both maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal). They said that for info to move to LTM, it needs to be with meaning.
Types of long term memory Tuvling. This idea is also against the MSM. It says that MSM was too simplistic
Episodic memory LTM store for personal eventsTime stamped
Semantic memory store LTM store for knowledge of the world.Not time- stamped
Procedural memory store LTM store or our knowledge of how to do things.Skills.
Clinical evidence for types of LTM HM and Clive Wearing. Their episodic memory was bad, so could not recall personal events, but their semantic memory was good- they still understood the meanings of things. Their procedural memories was also intact- they could tie shoes/ play the piano
Neuroimaging evidence for types of LTM Tulving et al.Brain scan studies show different areas of the brain being used for different types of LTM- episodic from the right pre-frontal cortex and semantic from the left. The physical reality suggests the stores are in fact independent.
Applications for different types of LTM Allows targeting of diff kinds of memories to better people's lives. Bellevill et al found that episodic memories can be improved in old people with a mild cognitive impairment.
Against multiple LTMs Cohen and Squire. Actually just two, procedural, and semantic and episodic in one.
Working memory model A representation of STM.
Central executive The component of the WMM that co-ordinates the activities of the three subsystems in memory. It also allocates processing resources to those activities.
Phonological loop The component/slave system of WMM that processes information in terms of sound, including both written and spoken material. It includes the phonological store and the articulatory process.
Visio- spatial sketchpad The component/slave system of WMM that processes both visual and spatial info. Often referred to as the inner eye, it includes the visual cache and the inner scribe.
Episodic buffer The component/ slave system of WMM that brings together info into from the other subcomponents together into a memory instead of single strands. It also links WM to LTM.
Phonological store The component of the phonological loop that stores words you hear- the inner ear
The articulatory process The component of the phonological loop that keeps words in a loop- inner voice. The capacity of this loop (maintenance rehearsal) is around 2 seconds.
The visual cache The component of the visio- spatial sketchpad that stores visual data
The inner scibe The component of the visio-spatial sketchpad which records the arrangement of objects in the visual field.
Clinical evidence for WMM KF. Bad ability for verbal STM info, but good ability for visual. This suggests that the phonological loop was damaged, but not other areas.
Dual task performance- support of discredit WMM Support. Finding were that doing two activities using the same store was more difficult the doing two activities using two stores. This is because the two stores would not be in competition, but when only one was used, it was 'overloaded'.
Criticism of WMM Lack of clarity over central executive. WMM is therefore not fully explained.
Word length tests Support phonological loop. Longer words are harder to remember because articulatory process is only about 2 seconds.
Articulatory suppressive task Teats show that when a task is done that may stop the articulatory loop (e.g. Saying lalala), then recall is worse.
Interference Forgetting because one memory blocks another- causing one memory or both to be distorted in some way.
Retro-active interference When a new memory blocks an old one- made worse if they are similar.
Proactive interference When an old memory blocks a new one- made worse if they are similar.
Study on similarity in interference McGeoch and McDonald. remember 2lists. Each group's lists were either- Synonyms, antonyms, unrelated, syllables, 3 digit numbers, no new list. When recalling the first list, their performance depended on the nature of the second list. Similar did worst.
Real-life study on interference. Baddeley and hitch. see if interference was a better explanation for forgetting than time. Looked at recall of rugby players on previous games. How long ago the matches were played was unimportant- but it was how many games that were played in meantime.
Burke and skrull Showed participants magazine adverts. Sometimes old adverts effected the memory of new ones and vice versa. The effect effect was greater if the adverts were similar.
Retrieval failures A form of forgetting that occurs when we don't have access to the necessary cues to retrieve a memory. Accessibility problems (not availability)
Cue A trigger of info that allows us to access a memory. May be meaningful, or indirectly linked by being encoded at the time of learning.
Encoding specificity principle Tulving- cue helps us if it has been encoded at the time of learning, and at the time of retrieval. Some cues are simply linked in a meaningful way- e.g mnemonics. While others aren't
Context – dependant forgetting External cues. Baddeley and Godden sea divers study. Land and land and underwater and underwater had best recall because external context acted as a cue.
State – dependant forgetting Internal cues. Carter and cassaday- anti-histamine study. On drug and on drug, off drug and off drug had best recall. The internal state acted as a cue.
Questioning context effects Baddeley- is context really that important in real life? Contexts would have to be very different to have an effect- in real life, it would be difficult to find a situation like the divers' one. So- real life application fails to explain forgetting.
Recall vs recognition Does context forgetting depend on the type of memory being tested. When baddeley and godden repeated the divers test with recognition rather than recall, there was not context dependant effect. So- only present when tested in a certain way.
Problems with encoding specificity principle Cannot be tested.
Study as evidence for WMM central executive Hunt et al. Dual task performance- psychomotor task while asking questions- as it got harder, performance on psychomotor was worse- this suggests that the central executive has limited capacity and can become overloaded if too many demands are placed onit
Study as evidence for WMM slave systems Beddeley et al. Dual performancw task- when using same slave system for both tasks it becomes overloaded and performance is worse. This means that there must be separate slave systems.

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