OA L9:Hist.-Tissues

Question Answer
What are the four basic tissue types? Epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve tissue
Epithelial tissue covers what and it derives from what? Covers all surfaces and derives from all 3 embryonic layers
What are the functions of the epithelial tissue? Protection, tissue absorption, secretion, sensory and specialized functions
Epithelial tissue cells are closely grouped with little or no what? Intercellular substance
Can the epithelial tissue be capable of renewal? Yes
Epithelial tissues are bound together by what? Desmosomes and hemidesmosomes
T/F Epithelial tissues are not avascular False
How many layers of cells does the unstratified epithelium have? Single layer of cells
What cell shapes does the unstratified epithelium have? Squamous: lines blood and lymph vessels, heart, lungs and kidneys; cuboidal: lines glands and gland ducts; columnar: inner enamel epithelium
How many cell layers does the stratified epithelium have? 2 or more cell layers
Stratified epithelium is classified by surface layer cell shape which are…. Squamous: oral mucosa (keratinized and nonkeratinized); cuboidal: salivary glands; columnar: salivary glands; transitional: bladder
Regeneration of epithelial Cells lost at superficial layer and produced at deepest layer
What renews faster, oral epithelium or skin? Oral epithelium
How long does it take for gingival to renew? 4-6 days
How long does it take for the lining to renew? 10-14 days
Basement membrane definition…. Thin non-living structure between epithelium and connective tissue
What are the 2 layers of the basement membrane? Basal lamina-2 layers; reticular lamina
Basement membrane is attached to epithelium via what? Hemidesmosomes
Connective tissue arise from mesoderm but originated from what? Somites
What are the functions of connective tissue? Support, packaging storage, transport, repair, and defense
What is connective tissue made up of? Mostly fibroblast and white blood cells
Can connective tissue renew? Yes
Can cartilage renew? No
What are the connective tissue fibers? Collage, elastic and reticular
What is collagen? Primary fiber type of all connective tissues EXCEPT BLOOD
What is collagen composed of? Protein and collagen
What is elastic fiber and what is it composed of? Microfilaments embedded in protein; composed of elastin-stretches and returns to original form
What is reticular fiber and what is it composed of? Seen in embryonic structures; composed of reticulin-mesh-like arrangement
What are the connective tissue classifications? Soft solid, firm solid, rigid solid, and fluid
What are the soft connective tissues? Loose C.T., Dense C.T., and specialized C.T.
Where is loose C.T. located? Just deep to epithelium (papillary layer)
Where is dense C.T. located? Deep to loose C.T. (tendons and ligaments)
What are the types of specialized C.T.? Adipose, elastic and reticular
Firm C.T. definition…. Non-calcified C.T. associated with the skeleton (cartilage)
What are the functions of firm C.T.? Temporary skeleton and covers most joint articular surfaces
Firm C.T. is comprised of…. mainly collagen cells
T/F Firm C.T. is avascular True
What are the type of cartilages? Hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage
Which cartilage is the most common? Hyaline
Hyaline is… most common; only collagen cells and it is found in epiphyseal plates
Elastic is… mix of collagen and elastic cells found in ear, Eustachian tube, epiglottis and larynx
Fibrocartilage is… Transitional in nature and has characteristics of hyaline and elastic cartilages (TMJ)
What does rigid C.T. form? The mature skeleton
What are the functions of rigid C.T.? Support, protection and mostly locomotion
Which connective tissue is considered the most specialized C.T.? Rigid C.T. (Bone)
T/F Rigid C.T. is calcified C.T. and vascular True
What is diaphysis? Central shaft of a long bone
What is epiphysis? 2 ends of a long bone
What does articular cartilage do? Covers epiphysis where it articulates with another bone
Where is the epiphyseal plate found? Cartilage between diaphysis and epiphysis
What is the epiphyseal line? Mineralization of plate
Where is the medullary cavity found? Within the diaphysis
What fills the medullary cavity? Marrow
What are the two kinds of marrow? Yellow: mostly fat; Red: blood-forming cells
Which marrow increases in amount with age? Yellow marrow
What is periosteum? Outer covering of bone
What does endosteum do? Lines medullary cavities
What are osteoblasts? Bone-forming cells (main function)
What are osteoclasts? Bone destroying cells
What are osteocytes? Mature osteoblasts
What are canaliculi? Processes from osteocytes
What are the 2 bone types? Compact and cancellous
Compact bone Mostly a solid matrix of cells forms at the diaphysis
Cancellous bone Lacy network of bone with small, marrow-filled spaces
What are the 3 bone layers? Circumferential, concentric and interstitial
What does circumferential surround? Surrounds the outer most of mature bones
What does the concentric layer make and what cells does it have? Makes bulk of compact bone and it contains osteoblasts and osteocytes
Where are interstitial layers located and what do they fill? Located in between concentric circles and it fills in spaces
What do osteoblasts cells do? Start formation of all bone and synthesize collagen and proteoglycans
Once osteoblasts are surrounded by matrix it becomes what? Osteocytes
What do osteocytes do? Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
Endochondral ossification forms what bones? Ramus of mandible, zygomatic arch and condyle process
Intramembranous ossification forms what bones? Body of maxillary and mandible, and alveolar process
In endochondral ossification, cartilage models are… hyaline surrounded by perichondrium-has blood supply
What do chondrocytes form? Matrix and makes cartilage
Where are osteoblasts created during endochondral ossification? In perichondrium
What dies as mineralization occurs? Cartilage
What does perichondrium become in endochondral ossification? Periosteum
In intramembranous ossification, osteoblasts form what between connective tissue membranes? Osteoid
Is intramembranous ossification structurally sound? If not, what causes it to be unsound? No; Due to "islands" of soft tissue within forming bone
What are ossification centers directed by? Periosteum
What my be replaced to form compact bone? Trabeculae
What influences growth and bone changes? Pressure and tension forces on bones
In Ca storages , Ca stores are in constant flux. T/F True
What controls Ca storage? Hormones
What occurs when a bone repairs? Clot formation, stabilization and callus
T/F Area of break once properly healed is weaker than original bone False
What are the 2 types of fluid C.T.? Blood components (aka formed elements) and plasma
What are the functions of fluid C.T.? Transport oxygen, transport carbon dioxide and immunological functions
What is blood composed of? Cells and cell fragments, and liquid matrix (plasma)
How much volume are formed elements in blood? 45%
How much volume is plasma in blood? 55%
What is plasma composed of? Straw-colored fluid (92% water) and the remaining 8% comprise of albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen
What does Albumin do? Maintains osmotic pressure
What are the formed elements in blood? Erythrocytes (RBCs)-most, Leukocytes (WBCs) and Platelets (thrombocytes)
Formed elements in blood start from what? Hemocytoblast
What is hematopoiesis? Makes blood
What areas is blood made up in? Fetus: many tissues; Red marrow and Lymphatic tissues: in adults
Stem cells are what and what do they make? They are hemocytoblasts and make blood cells
What is the shape of erythrocyte cells? Biconcave
Does erythrocyte cells have organelles? No
What are the functions of erythrocytes? Carry oxygen to tissues and removal of carbon dioxide
What is the life span of an erythrocyte? 110-120 days
One amino acid substitution in the beta chain of hemoglobin renders it insoluble. What is the result of this? Sickle cell anemia
Can an erythrocyte move through irregular shapes and sizes of capillaries? Why? Yes because it is flexible
What is in a hemoglobin? 4 heme groups and one Fe++
What is in an oxyhemoglobin? Oxygen
What is in a carbaminohemoglobin? Carbon dioxide
What is in a carboxyhemoglobin and is it reversible? Carbon monoxide and No
In erythrocytes' cell membrane contains what? Integral membrane proteins
In erythrocytes, glycophorin binds different what? Oligosaccharide chains
What does the composition of oligosaccharide chains determine? ABO blood type
What is the shape of leukocytes? Spherical
What are the functions of leukocytes? Protection from foreign microorganisms and removes dead cells and debris (Janitorial duty)
How do leukocytes move? Through blood and ameboid in tissues
What are the 2 different kind of leukocytes? Granulocytes and agranulocytes
What cells are in granulocytes? Neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils
What cells are in agranulocytes? Lymphocytes and monocytes
Which leukocyte is the most common? Neutrophils
What lines the inner surface of the nuclear envelope of neutrophils? Heterochromatin
How many lobes does the nucleus have in neutrophils? 2-5 lobes (usually 3)
Does neutrophils have many mitochondria? It has a few, but more glycogen then mitochondria
What do neutrophils have? Granules-collection of enzymes
Which granule is neutrophils primary lysosome? Azurophilic granule
Where are neutrophils formed and stored? In the medullary cavity
Where can neutrophils be in? Circulating, then migrate where they need to go, and some are in connective tissue
What is diapedesis? The process in which neutrophils=(PMNs) enter circulation from connective tissue
What is another name for neutrophils? Polymononucleocyte (PMN)
What is the function of PMNs? Phagocytosis
What stimulates neutrophils? Muscle activity, epinephrine release, and bacterial infection
What kind of nucleus does eosinophils have? Bilobed nucleus
What organelles are poorly developed in eosinophils? ER, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria
What do eosinophils have much of? Glycogen
Which granules are primary lysosomes for eosinophils? Specific granules
What functions does eosinophils have? Allergic reaction suppression, phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes commonly seen in asthma and hay fever, and aids in killing certain parasites
Which cell is the least common leukocyte? Basophils
T/F Basophils have less heterochromatin than other leukocytes True
What kind of lobes does basophils nucleus have? Irregular lobes (S-shaped)
What are the specific granules of basophils? Heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine (makes you itch)
Are basophils capable of diapedesis? Yes
T/F Monocytes have less heterochromatin than leukocytes True
What does monocytes have much of and what does it also have that is well-developed? Many mitochondria; well-developed Golgi complex
What shape is the nucleus of a monocyte? C-shaped nucleus
Monocytes are considered macrophages once: They leave the bloodstream
Monocytes/macrophages are the dominant cell after what cell dies? Neutrophils
What does macrophages do? Phagocytize microorganisms, debris and dead neutrophils
T/F Lymphocytes are highly variable in size True
What are the 2 main groups of lymphocytes? B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
Where do B-lymphocytes differentiate and what do they produce? Into plasma cells; Antibodies
Where do B-lymphocytes increase? In rER
What is there more of, B-lymphocytes of T-lymphocytes? T-lymphocytes
What is the shape of platelets? Irregular-small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane
Where do platelets arise from? Megakaryocytes
What function do platelets have? Function in hemostasis (blood clotting)
What are the 2 cytoplasmic zones in platelets? Hyalomere-outer zone (cytoskeletal fibers); Granulomere-inner zone (Organelles and vesicles)
How do platelets work? Adhere to damaged wall, platelets will stick and swell when contacting collagen within a wall, a platelet plug is formed, prothrombin to thrombin, fibrinogen to fibrin, and finally clot retracts
What system controls muscle tissue? The CNS
Which embryonic layer does muscle tissue originate from? Mesoderm from somites
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue? Skeletal: voluntary, locomotion; Smooth: involuntary, (organs, glands and vessel linings); Cardiac: involuntary (heart and major vessels)
Where is skeletal muscle located? Attached to bone or skin
What are the functions of skeletal muscle? Locomotion, expression, posture and heat generation
Skeletal muscles demonstrate the ability of: Recruitment
Skeletal muscle can be use without oxygen, what is this call? Oxygen debt
Skeletal muscle demonstrates: Contractility: shortens, excitability: simulated, extensibility: stretched, and elasticity: returns to their original length
What is the shape of smooth muscle? Spindle-shaped cells
What are the functions of smooth muscle? Contract slower, it has no oxygen debt and it has autorytmicity
When osteoid is produced between two connective tissue layers, the process is referred to as…. Intramembranous bone formation
A type of solid connective tissue is…. Cartilage
Name a specialized soft connective tissue… Adipose tissue
Elastin, reticulin, and collagen are…. Connective tissue fibers
The cell that makes up the greatest portion of the formed elements is… Erythrocytes
Bone formation mechanisms include: Endochondrial and intramembranous
The first cell present at the site of injury, inflammation or infection is the: Neutrophil
Platelets are: Active in blood clotting
Only part of the bone that can feel pain: Periosteum
What protects the end of each bone: Articular cartilage
What bony type is a solid matrix and makes up the diaphysis? Compact
Basophils release: Histamine
T/F The principle connective tissue is collagen True
What is the deepest structure in bone? Medullary cavity
What type of bone formation requires a cartilagenous framework? Endochrondrial ossification
Why are erythrocytes biconcave? They have lost their nuclei
What type of muscle has intercalated disks? Cardiac muscle
What type of bone formation requires a cartilagenous framework? Endochronial ossification

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