PSY 220

Question Answer
Describe nominal and ordinal measures *Nominal Scale- the use of symbols, such as words or numbers, to classify or categorize measurement objects into groups or types *Ordinal Scale- A rank order measurement scale
Describe interval and ration measures *Interval Scale- A scale of measurement with equal intervals of distance between adjacent*Ration Scale- A scale of measurement with rank ordering, equal intervals, and an absolute zero point
Explain reliability and validity. Reliability is the consistency or stability of scores and validity is the accuracy of interferences, interpretations, or actions made on the basis of test scores
4 forms of reliability covered in Ch. 5 *Test-retest, Equivalent Forms, Interval Consistency, Interrater
Test-Retest Consistency of a group of individuals' score on a test over time
Equivalent Forms Consistency of a group of individuals' scores on two versions of the same test
Interrater The degree of consistency or agreement between two or more scorers, judges, observers, or raters
List the 3 types of validity *Content-Related Evidence (Content Validity), Validity Evidence Based on Internal Structure, Validity Evidence Based on Relations to Other Variables
Content-Related Evidence (Content Validity) Based on a judgment of the degree to which the items, tasks, or questions on a test or instrument adequately represent the construct's domain
Validity Evidence Based on Internal Structure Some tests/instruments are designed to measure one general construct, but others are designed to measure several dimensions of a multidimensional construct
Validity Evidence Based on Relations to Other Variables Obtained by relating your test scores with one or more relevant and known criteria
Criterion- Related Degree to which scores predict or related to a known criterion such as a future performance or an already established test
Predictive Validity Degree to which scores obtained at one time correctly predict the scores on a criterion at a later time
Concurrent Validity Degree to which scores obtained at one time correctly relate to the scores on a known criterion obtained at approximately the same time
Convergent Validity Validity evidence based on the degree to which the focal test scores do not correlate with measures of different constructs
Multi-dimensional and uni-dimensional construct A multi dimensional construct consists of two or more dimensions whereas a uni is one
Equal Probability of Selection Method (EPSEM) Sampling method in which each individual element has an equal probability of selection into the sample
Simple Random Sampling A popular and basic equal probability selection method
Stratified Random Sampling Division of population elements into mutually exclusive groups and then selection of a random sample from each group
Cluster Random Sampling Sampling method where clusters are randomly selected
Systematic Sampling The sampling method where one determines the sampling interval (k), randomly selects an element between 1 and k, and then selects every kth element
Nonrandom Sampling Any sampling method where some elements of the population have no chance of selection, or where the probability of selection cannot be accurately determined
Convenience Sampling Use of people who are readily available, volunteer, or are easily recruited from inclusion in a sample
Quota Sampling A researcher decides on the desired sample sizes or quotas for groups identified for inclusion in the sample, followed by convenience sampling from the groups
Purposive Sampling A researcher specifies the characteristics of the population of interest and then locates individuals who have those characteristics
Snowball Sampling Each sampled person is asked to identify other potential participants with the inclusion character
Maximum Variation Sampling Identification and selection of a wide range of cases for data collection and analysis
Extreme Case Sampling Identification and selection of cases from the extremes or poles of a dimensions
Homogeneous Sample Selection Identification and selection of a small and homogeneous group or a set of homogenous cases for intensive study
Typical-Case Sampling Identification and selection of what is believed to be a typical or average case
Critical-Case Sampling Identification and selection of particularly important cases
Negative-Case Sampling Identification and selection of cases that you believe will probably disconfirm your generalizations, so that you can make sure that you are not just selectively finding cases to support your personal theory
Opportunistic Sampling Identification and selection of useful cases during the conduct of a research study, as the opportunity arises
Random Sampling Selection of participants using a random sampling method
Random Assignment Placement of participants who experimental conditions based on a chance process
Statistical Conclusion Validity The validity of inferences made about the covariation between the independent and dependent variables
Construct Validity The extent t which a construct is adequately represent by the research study
Internal Validity The correctness of inferences made by researchers about cause and effects
External Validity Degree to which the study results can be generalized to and across other people, settings, treatments, outcomes, and times
Participant Reactivity Research participants' motive and tendencies that affect their perceptions of the situation and their responses on the dependent variable
Demand Characteristics Any of the cues available in an experiment, such as instructions, rumors, or setting characteristics, that influence the response off participants
Positive Self-Presentation Bias Participants' motivation to respond in such a way as to present themselves in the most positive manner
Experimenter Expectancy Biasing experimenter effects attributable to the researcher's expectations about the outcome of the experiment
Confounding Extraneous An extraneous variable that co-occurs with the independent variable and affect the dependent variable
History (danger to internal validity) Any event that can produce the outcome, other than the treatment condition, that occurs during the study before posttest measurement
Maturation (Danger to internal validity) Any physical or mental change that occurs with the passage of time and affects dependent variable scores
Instrumentation (danger to internal validity) Changes from the pretest to posttest in the assessment or measure
Testing Effect (danger to interval validity) Changes in a person's score on the second administration of a test resulting from having previously taken the test
Regression Artifact (danger to internal validity) Effects that appear to be due to the treatment but are due to regression to the mean
Attrition (danger to internal validity) Loss of participants because they don't show up or they drop out of the research study
Selection (danger to internal validity) Production of nonequivalent groups because a different selection procedure operates across the groups
Additive and Interactive Effects (danger to internal validity) Differences between group is produces because of the combined effect of two or more threats to internal validity
Population Validity Degree to which the study results can be generalized to and across the people in the target population
Ecological Validity The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized across settings or environmental conditions
Temporal Validity The degree to which the results can be generalized across time
Treatment Variation Validity The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized across variations in the treatment
Outcome Validity The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized across different but related dependent variables
What is the trade-off between internal and external validity? When external validity is increased, internal validity tends to be sacrificed; when internal validity is increased, external validity tends to suffer
What is cyclical variation-what should you do about it? Any type of systematic up-and-down movement on the dependent variable over time. You should know your subject and dependent variable well enough that you can aware of any possible cyclical variation and can compensate for or avoid them altogether
What are the strengths and weakness of matching? The strength of matching is that it ensures that participants in the different groups are equated on the matching variable(s). They key weakness of matching is that the groups are equated only on the matching variables
Matching by Holding Variables Constant Hold the extraneous variable constant for all groups in the experiment
Matching by Building the Extraneous Variable into the Research Design Self explanatory
Matching by Yoked Control A matching technique that matches participants on the basis of the temporal sequence of administering an event
Matching by Equating Participants A matching technique is which each participant is matched with another participant on selected variables Random Assignment helps produce treatment and control groups that are similar on al possible characteristics.
Counterbalancing A technique used to control for sequencing effects
Intrasubject Counterbalancing Administering the treatment conditions to each individual participant in more than one order
Differential Carryover Effect A treatment condition affects participants' performance in a later condition in one way and in another way when followed by a different condition
Double Blind Placebo Method Neither the experimenter nor the research participant is aware of the treatment condition administered to the participant. Deception is giving the participant a bogus rational for the experiment, but this can help reduce participant bias
Concurrent Probing Obtaining a participants' perceptions of the experimenter after completion of each trial
Sacrifice Groups Groups of participants who are stopped and interviewed at different stages of the experiment
Thick-Aloud Technique A method that requires participants to verbalize their thoughts as they are performing the experiment
Partial Blind Technique A method whereby knowledge of each research participant's treatment condition is kept from the experimenter through as many stages of the experiment as possible
Automation The technique of totally automating the experimental procedures so that no experimenter – participant interaction is required Some experimenters, because of their attributes, produce more of an effect that other experimenters. But this increased effects n

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