psych #2

Question Answer
biopsychology link between biology and behavior/mental processes
neurons nerve cell, basic building block of nervous system, communication allows you to do everything, release chemicals
glial cells cells in nervous system that nourish, support, and protect neurons-may also play a role in learning, thinking and memoryex. oligodendrytes
"glia" glue-originally thought they only supported neurons
dendrites neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward cell body
nucleus contains DNA to decide what cells should be
myelin sheath layer of fatty tissue that acts as an insulator on the axons and speeds up there impulses-insulates electrical signal (AP) and makes the AP go faster
Node of Ranvier located between each block of myelin
axon neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands- can be very long
axon terminal where axon ends, output area of the cell -also known as terminal branches, buttons
synapse point between axon tip of sender and dendrite (cell body of receiver) gap between two neurons is less than one millionth of an inch of a gap
communication is made up of two different things electrical and chemical
phrenology studying bumps on the skull
biological perspective links between biology and behavior
action potential an electrical impulse that travels down the axon initial segment of axon where action potential energy is generated
electricity in the brain the movement of charged particles
depolarization loss of inside and outside charge difference- more sodium ions flowing in
refractory period inactivity period after neuron fires-sodium ions go back out to the outer layer
threshold level of stimulation required to trigger neural impulse
all or none response neurons reaction of firing or not-based off of majority rules
neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps, they are released by sender- go across synaptic gap- bind to receptors on receiving neuron
reuptake neurotransmitters reabsorption by sending neurons
endorphins morphine within natural, opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain and to control pleasure
acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter plays role in memory and learning, messenger at all points between motor neurons and skeletal muscles, important for movement being carried out
agonist molecule increases neurotransmitter action, mimics a neurotransmitter or blocks reuptakeex. pretends to be ACh and binds to receptors and sets them off (nicotine)
antagonists blocks receptor or inhibits release of neurotransmitter and decreases the effect of the drug. can bind to receptor but won't set it off-if ACh is blocked the result is paralysis
nervous system body's electrochemical communication network
central nervous system decision maker consists of brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system gathers information and transmits CNS decisions – sensory and motor neurons connect CNS with muscles, glands, organs
3 types of neurons sensory, motor, interneurons
sensory neuron sends messages from body tissues and receptors to CNS
motor neuron sends messages from CNS to muscles and glands
interneurons neurons within the brain and spinal cord- they communicate internally and process information between 2 above
spinal cord 2 way information highway connecting PNS and brain-messages going up are sensory and messages going down are motor
reflex simple, automatic response to sensory stimulus
endocrine system body's slow chemical communication -a set of glands secrete hormones into bloodstream
hormones chemical messengers travel through bloodstream affect other tissues
adrenal glands glands above kidneys that help arouse body in times of stress
pituitary gland pea sized in core of brain -triggers other glands and hormones that lead to the body and brain
mind brain+body
3 ways to stimulate the brain electrically, chemically, and magnetically
lesion tissue distruction
electroencephalogram an amplified recording of the waves of electricity activity sweeping across the brain's surface- measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
positron emission tomography scan (PET) a visual display of activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a technique that used magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissues- shows brain anatomy
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) a technique for revealing blood flow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans- shows brain function as well as structure
brainstem oldest part and central core of the brain- begins where spinal cord swells as it enters under the skull-responsible for automatic survival functions
medulla base of brainstem that controls heart beat and breathing
what happens with damage to the medulla life threatening issues, more than likely unable to breath leading to death
pons in charge of sensorimotor (motor area and sensory info coming in) and dreaming
REM sleep rapid eye movements that symbolize dreaming-pons sends info all around the brain so the brains tries to make sense of it in the end creating dreams
thalamus brain's sensory control center, located on top of brainstem-directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
reticular formation nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal
cerebellum "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem-functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory
2 things cerebellum important for posture and muscle memory
limbic system neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres associated with emotions and drives-very selfish part of the brain
amygdala two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system that are linked to emotion- panic button of the brain, fear center, activated with negative emotions
hypothalamus lies below thalamus and directs several maintenance activities, helps govern endocrine system via the pituitary gland, linked to emotion and reward-often controls fight or flight and sexual behavior
hippocampus neural center located in the limbic system in the temporal lobes that helps process explicit memories for storage-remembers facts and experiences long term
cerebral cortex intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres- body's ultimate control and info processing center
why is the cerebral cortex wrinkled the more wrinkled, the more surface area which means more cortex. This is good because it is the most advanced portion of the brain
4 lobes parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital
frontal lobe located in the front of the forehead, involved in planning, moral judgements, and motor movements-also controls limbic system
where do things occur in frontal lobe most advanced cognitive functions occur in the front versus the back
temporal lobe lies above the ears and is involved in hearing and memory-hippocampus is located in here too
occipital lobe lies at the back of the head and includes areas the receive information from the visual fields
parietal lobe portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear that receives sensory input for touch and body position-brings different senses together and contains a map of the body here
place where all 5 senses come together no where in the brain- typically only 2 come together at one time
motor cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
somatosensory cortex area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
association area areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions- rather involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking , and speaking
plasticity brains ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience-ex. ppl without hearing have much better eyesight
cingulate cortex (not a lobe) ACC- pain perception anterior part (front)- emotional pain, ouch factoraffective part of the brain
neuorgenesis formation of new neurons
corpus callosum large band of fibers that connects 2 brain hemispheres and carries messages between them
split brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them
right hemisphere… excels in making inferences, helps modulate our speech, orchestrates self-awareness, ability to touch, can't form words to objects, facial recognition
left hemisphere… controls speech
nociceptors sensory receptors that enable the perception of pain in response to potentially harmful stimuli
gate-control theory theory that spinal cord contains a neurological 'gate' that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. Opened by small nerve fibers and closed by activity in large fiber or by info coming from the brain
taste chemical sense in that chemicals in the food binds to the recptors
fungiform papille (mushroom like) taste buds located on them
taste buds buried in fungiform papillae and buried down in the cracks
taste receptors clustered on the taste buds
number of receptors and taste buds 50 receptors per bud and about 6 buds per fungiform papillae
percentages of tasters 25% supertasters50% average tasters25% nontaster
supertaster has more fungiform papillae leads to more buds and receptors, more free nerve endings, more bitter receptors (have a 2nd type of bitter receptor)-more likely to be women and said to be living in a neon world
supertasters dislike black coffee, hot peppers, grapefruit, strong vegetables, high fat and sugary foods (cheesecake)
advantages of being supertaster recognized bitter foods in nature=poisonable to detect spoiled food
disadvantages of supertasters restricted diets can lead to an increase for the risk of cancer and a decrease for the risk of heart disease
five main tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami (meaty)
Why does orange juice taste bad after brushing teeth? OJ activates sweet, salty, and bitter receptorsSodium Laureth sulfate in toothpaste blocks sweet receptors only receptors left are salty and bitter
sodium laureth sulfate in toothpaste and makes things foam up since blocks receptors–> antagonist
excitatory want the action potential to fire, allows action potential to be met
inhibitory doesn't want the action potential to fire
where do neurons meet meet at the top of the 1st axon segment and then majority rules- enough to fire then the AP fires, more inhibitory not going to fire
what happens when the action potential reaches the axon terminal neurotransmitters are released
ion channels protein in membrane of cell with hole in the middle allowing ions to move in and out of the cell
neuron at rest not currently firing an action potential -very negative on inside of cell and lots of sodium on the outside of the cell
stimulation form another neuron chemical signals from other neuron begins the process-when first gate opens the other parts are still at rest
process of gates opening chemical signal. 1st gate opens. threshold to made sodium channels open is met. sodium ion rush in, gates continue to open
what happens to membrane when sodium ions rush in it changes the membrane and opens up the next gate and cycle continues
purpose of action potential cause a neurotransmitter to be released
properties of the action potential all or none phenomenon, strength of input doesn't affect it's speed or size, only travels in one direction
which way does the action potential travel? one direction- initial segment of axon to the axon terminal
Myelination myelin insulates axon and allows the AP to go faster than unmyelinated, tons of Na+ at nodes of ranvier and sodium channels waiting for gates to open
what does myelination cause protection of the signal and faster speed
what happens between gaps of myelin signal gets a jumpstart at each gap and continues to stay alive and flow
multiple sclerosis myelin are degenerating and signals die off and don't make it to the axon
novocaine less potent blocker of Na+, acts locally, controlled injection into one area (safer), drilling creates pain message but never gets to the brain
tetrodoxin (TTX) poison in pufferfish that targets Na+ ion channels and blocs them, it can't cross blood/brain barrier so it only affects nerves in bodyResult: AP can't fire, paralysis, and death
After AP fires chemical signal are sent out to influence neighboring neurons (neurons aren't touching so they need chemicals)
In the synapse… neurotransmitter float across, bind to their receptors on other neurons, receptors are specialized
after binding,,,,,, reuptake occurs or the enzyme breaks down
AP like flushing a toilet either flushes or doesn'tstrength of push has no effectrefractory periodonly moves in one direction
Schizophrenia too much dopamine- something goes wrong in development and signs show up around 18 yrs old
symptoms of schizophrenia hallucinations and delusions
hallucinations perception that something is there when it's not (most often have auditory hallucinations)
delusions false belief and there's no way to convince otherwise–> can interfere with medications
psychotic episode someone actively experiencing hallucinations and delusions
tactile hallucinations feel things on skin that aren't there
olfactory hallucinations smell things that aren't there
parkinson's disease not enough dopamine, movement disorder as it progresses people feel trapped in a body that doesn't move
symptoms of parkinson's disease slowed movement, rigid muscles, mask-like facial expressions
dopamine important in initiating movement in the brain
neuromuscular junction place where nerves tell muscles what to do -ACh is released to tell what to do
Curare blocks ACh receptors leading to paralysis
Sarin nerve gas that blocks enzymes that break down ACh, which causes SLUDE and ceases respiration (often used in war)
SLUDE salavation, laurimation (eyes water uncontrollably), urination, defecation, emesis (constant throwing up)
how to stop SLUDE from nerve gas need 2 anecdotes to stop this with 2 different ACh receptors
2 parts of nervous system central and peripheral
2 parts of peripheral nervous system somatic and autonomic
somatic nervou system skeletal muscles, sensorimotor
autonomic nervous system control internal organs and glands, breaks into sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic nervous system stress response, fight or flight, increases HR, sweating, pupils dilate, adrenalin release and digestion is slowed
parasympathetic nervous system rest and digest, calmingdecrease HR and respiration, stop sweating, pupils constrict, digestion is stimulated
Case of Miss C born in montreal, congential pain disease, ied at 29, bit off tongue when 3 and had 3rd degree burns, no changes in HR or BP with stimulus, many health problems –> no joint protection, didn't shift weight
when gate is open will hurt with full force
when gate is closed doesn't hurt at all
when gate is partially closed won't hurt as much
physical factor closes gate from bottom ex. touch/pressure closing pain gate
psychological factor closes gate from top to bottom-> happens in the brain and signals are sent down
4 psychological factors distraction, motivation, how sensation is labeled, social support

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