SEHS Test Topic 6

Question Answer
What are the steps of the scientific method? observation, hypothesis, experiment, collect data, conclusion, retest
Why do we use the scientific method? to gather data that answers a question and support or refute a hypothesis
accuracy how close the data is to being correct
precision how exact or specific an answer is
qualitative data gives descriptive information and is measured with the senses
quantitative data gives numerical information and is measured by instruments
discrete data takes particular values, only a finite number of values is possible
continuous data is not restricted to separate values, can be meaningfully subdivided into finer increments
independent variable affects the dependent variable and is changed or manipulated
dependent variable changes due to the independent variable, is observed and measured
control group no tested, used for comparison, not changed
Why are variables controlled? What does this mean? variables are controlled to maintain the reliability and validity of the experiment
hypothesis a suggested solution to the problem (ex. IF one runs up and down the stairs for two minutes THEN their heart rate will increase.)
null hypothesis a statement a researcher tries to invalidate with evidence
alternative hypothesis a statement a researcher tries to support with evidence
What do error bars represent in data presentations? Why are they used? give a general idea of how precise a measurement is or how far from the reported value the TRUE (error free) value might be; represent 1 standard deviation above and below the mean
mean average
median middle number of a data set
mode number that occurs the most in a data set
range difference between the highest and the lowest value
outlier number that lies and abnormal distance from other values
variance statistical term to help process the spread of data; calculated by r^2
coefficient of variation calculated value to aid statistical analysis; V=(100xSD)/mean
What is probability? Why is it relevant to data analysis? the likelihood something will happen; used to see how likely the differences in results from an experiment were due to random chance or significant correlation
What is the difference between z and t? Which is more applicable to IB SEHS and why? z is for population while t is for sample size; as you increase your sample size the closer you get to z; t is more applicable to IB SEHS because you are only testing a sample instead of the population
paired t-test compares two sets of data that are directly related; before and after
unpaired t-test compares two sets of data that are not directly related; control and experimental groups
one tailed test only concerned with data above OR below the mean
two tailed test concerned with data both above and below the mean
degree of freedom one less than the number of subjects
r correlation coefficient; used for finding strength and direction of correlation
r^2 coefficient of variation; used for determining what percent of the variability of the data can be explained by the linear relationship
extrapolation the action of estimating or concluding something by assuming that existing trends will continue or a current method will remain applicable
p-hacking the use of data mining to uncover patterns in data that can be presented as statistically significant without first devising a specific hypothesis as to the underlying causalty
bias prejudice in favor or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair
validity experiment is testing what it claims to be testing (major sources of error or interference can cause an experiment to be deemed invalid)
specificity the extent to which a diagnostic test or experiment is specific for a particular condition, trait, or characteristic
reliability the degree to which a measure would produce the same result from one occasion to another (practicing before experiment so subjects don't improve)
placebo substance with no therapeutic effect; used as a control
single blind experiment researcher knows which group is the control and which group is the experimental but the subjects do not
double blind experiment neither the researcher nor the subjects know which group is the control group or the experimental group
What does PAR-Q stand for? Why is it used? Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire; it is used to determine whether or not someone is physically fit enough to participate in an experiment
cardio-respiratory fitness the ability to take in, deliver and use oxygen for aerobic and oxidative energy systems
muscular strength amount of force that a muscle can produce in one contraction
muscular endurance amount of force that a muscle can produce over an extended period of time
body composition body's relative amounts of fat mass and fat free mass (bone, water, muscle, connective and organ tissues, teeth)
flexibility the ability to move through a full range of motion about a joint
speed change in distance over time; the entire/part of the body in motion; determined by factors including psychological factors, muscle conditioning and neural coordination
power the combination of strength and speed/force and velocity; rate of performing work
agility the ability to rapidly change direction or speed and is broke into two major categories – perceptual and physical
balance stability of the body based on visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive cues perceived but he nervous system and coordinated through muscles contractions
coordination the ability to link muscle groups to appear well controlled and efficient
reaction time time between stimulus and response, primarily on the responsiveness and the coordination of the nervous system
VO2max maximal rate oxygen can be used during maximal exercise, referred to as aerobic capacity
% of adult males is essential fat 3%
% of adult females is essential fat 12%
Why are the Beep Test, Harvard Step Test, and Cooper's 12min. Run used? to estimate VO2max
What is the difference between warm-up and cool-down? one gets the body ready for exercise by increasing the heart rate and loosens the muscles while the other recovers the body from exercise by bringing the heart rate to a resting rate and cooling the muscles down
passive stretching when an athlete holds a pose for 30 seconds
active stretching when an athlete moves in a sports related motion but avoids bouncing or overly explosive movement
heart rate reserve
target heart rate

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