Soil formation

Term Definition
A loose mixture of weathered rock fragments,organic material,water,and air that can support the growth of vegetation.
Soil composition What is made of A mixture of rock particles, minerals, decayed organic materials, water, and air.
Transported soil Soil that is blown , washed away, or moved by glaciers.
Residual soil The soil that remains above its parent rock
Bedrock The layer of rock beneath the soil
Humus A dark-colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay. Makes the soil dark. Lighter soil has less
Fertile soil Rich in the nutrients that plants need to grow
Soil texture The soil quality that is based on the proportion of soil particles. Depends on the size of the soil particles
Soil horizons Layers of soil
Horizon A Topsoil with humus crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals
Horizon B Subsoil Consist of clay and other particles washed down from Horizon A, but little humus
Horizon C Rock fragments (weathered rock) forms as bedrock weathers and rock breaks up into soil
Horizon R Bedrock-solid rock at the bottom
Loam Soil that is made up of equal parts of clay, sand, and silt Best for growing most types of plants
Decomposition How humus is formed. Rotting and decaying
Leaching The removal of substance that can be dissolve from rock or layers of soil due to the passing of water
Parent rock The source of the weathered fragments (mineral fragments or sediments)
Litter Loose layers of leaves on the ground from plants

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